Ch. 8 and 9 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000
Ch. 8 and 9 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000 Psych 1000
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
CH 8 MEMORY Kim Peek quotmega savantquot born with a genesis of the corpus callosum no corpus callosum double photographic memory could read one page with one eye and the other page with the other eye unique because he could use the information showed creativity etc rather than just repeating it verbatim Memory retention of information over time a Basic memory processes i encoding getting info into memory ii storage holding info in memory over time iii retrieval nding info in memory getting information out and using it ll Encoding a Automatic processing i Some information is automatically encoded space time sequence frequency b Effortful processing i maintenance rehearsal repeating what you re trying to remember over and over without necessarily thinking about the meaning doesn t result in very lasting memory but good for lists 1 serial position effects how well you remember an item on a list depends on whether it s at the beginning middle or end of a list a primacy effect our tendency to better remember items at the beginning of a list b recency effect our ability to better remember items at the end of a list c immediately after reading a list both effects are prevalent after time only the primacy effect is still shown ii elaborative rehearsal deeper level of processing results in more durable memory 1 meaning semantics think about the meaning of the information 2 deeper processing more deeply processed more lasting memories better able to use it later 3 linking information you re trying to encode with information you already know enhances depth of processing 4 selfreference effect deepest best able to remember information if we apply it to ourselves personally relevant iii spacing effect tendency to remember info better if encodingstudying is distributed over time rather than massed lll Storage a Information Processing Model of Memory information must pass through Three stages mental processing before it is rmly embedded in memory i Sensory memory 1 Brief identi cation 2 Holds information coming in through the senses just long enough for us to identify it what was that just sawfeltetc ii Shortterm memory STM 1 Further analysis of sensory information holds a small amount of memory we re currently using 2 Working memory mental manipulation mental chalk board allows us to do mental work hoding info in memory While you manipulate it combine it in different ways and imagine possible outcomes ex mental math 3 Storage capacity rather limited only so much we can consider at one time a immediate memory span maximum number of items that can be recalled perfectly after one presentation i magic number 72 4 Duration is also limited only persists for about 1830 seconds unless you re actively usingthinkingrehearsing it ill Longterm memory LTM 1 Believed to have an unlimited capacity 2 Believed to have relatively permanent duration 3 Types a Explicitdeclarative conscious memories of facts and experiences that we are aware of having i Episodi personal memory for our own personal life eventsexperiences wherewhen ii Semantic impersonal facts generalized knowledge of the world b lmplicitnondeclarative unconscious memory without conscious recollection often involves unconscious in uence of past experience on our behavior and thinking i Procedural how to perform certain routine skills and automatic tasks ii Priming and classical conditioning also create implicit memories don t t as well in the information processing model IV Retrieval a Retrieval cues little hints or clues that help us remember something i stimuli that aid retrieval ii storied in a network of interconnected associations iii spreading activation receival of cue results in an activation of mental concept of that cue and then spreads through connected associations and activates other closely related concepts a way of spreading through the network b Contextdependent memory external cues i When environmental stimuli provides us with retrieval cues c Statedependent memory internal cues i When our internal state provides us with retrieval cues V Forgetting a Reasons for forgetting i Encoding failure may never have encoded the info in the rst place ii Storage decay 1 Fading of unused memories iii Retrieval failure info is somewhere in your memory you re just having trouble accessing it 1 Evidence relearning cues sometimes we re able to remember stuff when we get the proper cues 2 When you learn something the second time around you will relearn it faster b Forgetting in STM thought to be due to decav or di5placement displacement new info kicks out old info c Forgetting in LTM thought to be due to retrieval failure it s in there you just can t get to it d Ebbinghaus pioneer and early researcher studied the forgetting curve i Forgetting levels off and slows down ii Would memorize a long list of nonsense syllables and would test himself on how well he remembered them iii Forgot a lot in the rst hour then it leveled off would remember most of what you remember after 1hr days and weeks later iv General shape of the forgetting curve is generally the same as for other stimuli that we learn and then don t really use VI Constructing Memories a Memory is not a video recorder it s in uenced by memories and experiences we add and subtract from memories all the time b Memory is subjective easily in uenced continually revised in uenced by beliefs and expectations c Memory is constructed we build it over time and tend to remodel d Schemas i mental frameworks that organize info abstract mental representation that organize what we know and expect from various situations ii they develop over time as we notice common features of repeated experience what to expect from particular expedences iii schema theory info molded to t into schemas our schemas in uence what we remember and how we remember it iv Office experiment e Misinformation effect when misinformation in uences our memories i memory easily distorted by questions and suggestions ii Evewitness testimonv 1 Elizabeth Loftus traf c accident experiment 2 Use of the words quotsmashed intoquot vs hit vs contacted 3 Estimated speed differed depending on the word used in the question 4 Wording of the question shifted how they remembered the accident weeks later presence or lack of broken glass iii remembering what never happened 1 Bugs Bunny at Disney World people have strong memories but he couldn t possibly be there so it s not real f Can traumatic memories be repressed then recovered i Could happen but is unlikely ii more likely to overremember traumatic experiences 1 difficulty not remembering it much more likely than repression iii Infantile amnesia 9 see Hippocampus g Discerning true and false memories i False memories can be as vivid people can be as con dent in false memories ii No de nite way to discern the difference iii Con dence and vividness do not necessarily indicate accuracy Vll Biological Bases of Memory a Synaptic changes 39 New synapses may form between neurons when a new memory is formed existing synapses may be strengthened or sensitizedsignal more efficiently Longterm potentiation LTP strengthening or sensitization of existing synapses b Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Glutamate c stress hormones d Brain Structures Hippocambus iv 1 2 3 4 Most strongly associated with memory STM to LTM Essential for transferring short term memory to long term memory explicit memories essential for the ability to form new explicit memories Infantile Amnesia lack of memory for events prior to the age of 3 no one reliably remembers things that happened before 3 yrs old frontal and temporal lobes 1 2 memory is a pattern of activation longterm storage m 1 Classical conditioning implicit BasalGangHa 1 Procedural implicit e Physical damage to the brain and amnesia Retrograde amnesia 1 DUIN General trauma not associated with trauma to a speci c part of the brain more general concussion in ammation etc impacts explicit not implicit memory Can t remember past difficulty recalling the past Gradual recovery remember them in the order in which they happened Some people can t remember anything some people can t remember certain parts Often when there is a trauma that results in a loss of consciousness they don t remember events leading up to the trauma a Believed that what happens is what is stored in the short term memory doesn t transfer to long term memory Anterograde amnesia 1 Associated with damage to the hippocampus 2 can t transfer STM to LTM has trouble remembering new information just a short time later a can t make new explicit long term memories after the damage b implicit memory is often ne and unaffected can teach them tennis and they will improve but if you ask if they know how they will say no HM patient who was extensively studied had his hippocampus removed on both sides studied the effects on his memory 4 Typically people have trouble remembering things that occurred after the damage iii explicit vs implicit 1 2 implicit automatic HM could walk himself to the bathroom explicit encoded HM wouldn t be able to tell you where the bathroom is CH 9 THINKING AND LANGUAGE Cognition a Manipulating and transforming info b Thinking knowing remembering communicating Judgment Formation and cognitive errors a b We sometimes rely on heuristics when forming judgments or making decisions Heuristics mental shortcuts that help simplify decision making rules of thumb simple strategies educated guesses c Heuristics are easy to use and frequently work well d Examples of common heuristics i When evaluating two similar products we tend to assume that the more expensive version is of higher quality ii If a person is an arrogant jerk then the people they hang around are probably also jerks birds of a feather ock together Heuristics save time and mental effort but they sometimes cost us in accuracy The Availability Heuristic i When we use the availability heuristic we judge the likelihood of an event by what is more available in memory ii If something is more available in memory it is easier to think of examples and we judge it as more common or likely iii Thus we judge the likelihood of an event by how easy it is to think of examples iv Several factors in uence what is available in memory 1 Recent events are more available in memory and tend to be judged as more likely to occur For instance people rate their chances of dying in a plane crash or natural disaster as higher if there has recently been a plane crash or natural disaster 2 Our memories are also biased toward dramatic vivid unusual or emotionally charged events Thus we tend to rate our chances of being attacked by a shark or being a victim of terrorism as much higher than they actually are 3 Wellpublicized events tend to be judged as more likely than they actually are because it is easier to conjure up mental images of wellpublicized events Thus people tend to overestimate their chances of dying in an accident and tend to underestimate their chances of dying of diabetes or emphysema This is also one reason why lottery players tend to overestimate their chances of winning g Cognitive errors i Con rmation bias 1 Tend to pay attention to and seek out info that con rms and supports our beliefs 2 Fail to seek out info that may indicate we are wrong 3 Seem to be more interested in proving that we are right rather than nding out the truth 4 Seek out con rmatory evidence ii Belief perseverance 1 Tend to cling to beliefs even when presented with contrary evidence 2 biased evaluation of evidence 3 takes more evidence to change our mind than it did to make up our mind in the rst place iii Overcon dence about decisions 1 overestimate our accuracy of judgment and knowledge 2 DunningKruger effect Ignorance and con dence a Tendency for people who lack knowledge or skill in an area to overestimate their knowledge and skill b Tendency for people who do have expertise underestimate their expertise c Ignorance creates con dence people who know a little think they know a lot people who know a lot think they know a little HL Language a Basic characteristics i symbols words letters sounds gestures ii grammar combining symbols in meaningful ways b Stages of Language Development typically starts developing between 1 and 2 yrs of age i First Year 1 Babbling a Starts around 4 months b Meaningless syllable repetition c Can contain sounds heard throughout various languages d How babbling changes over time sounds it doesn t hear in its environment languagelanguages spoke in the home start to drop out of its babbling e Functionally deaf to sounds we don t hear spoken around us when we re young Japanese typically can t distinguish the difference between ra and la because those sounds aren t distinguished in their language sounds like repetition of the same syllable 2 Oneword stage a Around rst birthday b Produce one word at a time quotmama quotdadaquot etc 3 Receptive vs productive language a Typically can understand more words than they can produce b Receptive develops faster ii Second Year 1 telegraphic speech two word sentences quotnot funnyquot 2 follows the grammar rules of their native language quotjuice gonequot quotgive toyquot 3 often use intonation of facial expression and repetition to get their point across 4 overgeneralization of rules a quotl runnedquot quotl drinkedquot c Language acquisition i Evidence that we are biologically predisposed to acquire language 1 Learn it an incredible rate and method of learning without speci c lessons 2 Not just imitation and reinforcement they will learn to talkacquire it even if they aren t reinforced not just operant conditioning or observational learning 3 Childhood serves as a critical or sensitive period for language acquisition all that s required is exposure seems to close around the age of 7 and is fully closed after the age of 1213 a children lacking exposure to language i deaf children ii Feral children child raised with little to no human contact as a result of severe neglect and isolation ex Jeannie 4 Timing of additional languages a Little kids are better able to learnmaster additional languages than adults b If you learn it as a child you are more likely to not speak it with a foreign accent c Suggests something special about childhood with respect to learning language IV Thinking and Language thinking in uences language a Linguistic relativity hypothesis i Language in uences thinking perception memory ii Reciprocal relationship iii Better able to perceive think about and remember things if we have words for them iv Expanding language may expand thinking b Bilingualism i Different languages in uence quality of thought processes ii most of the people in the world are slightly bilingual in US the percentage is much smaller 7 and that may limit our appreciation of how other people may think in different ways and other cultures work iii Cognitive bene tsadvantages cognitive exibility creativity language skills attention control c Doublespeak language used to manipulate language used to in uence our perception of reality often used in politics i Framing ii Ex preowned used negative patient outcome death detainee prisoner etc d Genderbiased language i Masculine generic use of masculine nouns and pronouns to refer to everybody produces thoughts of males V Animal thinking and language a Animals are smart and have a lot of potential b Cognitive abilities exceed expectations i Use tools have customs form concepts etc c Language i Animals use symbols to communicate ii Animals lack complex grammar that characterizes human language
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