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Learning and Conditioning and Memory

by: Heer Patel

Learning and Conditioning and Memory Psych 100

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Psychlogy > Psych 100 > Learning and Conditioning and Memory
Heer Patel
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford

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About this Document

This set includes notes on Learning and Conditioning and Memory. It talks about classical conditioning, operant conditioning, (and their principles) Stimuli, Cognitive-Social Learning, Memory (long...
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford
Class Notes
#Psych #Operant #social #Psychology #Learning #Conditioning #Memory #Classical
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heer Patel on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by John Bickford in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
LEARNING AND CONDITIONING AND MEMORY Limitations of Classical Conditioning Many behaviours cannot be explained by classical conditioning Throwing a ball Playing the piano Answering the telephone Opening a door Classical conditioning does not create new behavior It is a process of stimulus substitution that cannot create new behaviors It only connects naturally occurring responses to new stimuli Mainly visceral responses Operant Conditioning Unlike classical conditioning relates to learning of responses that don39t occur naturally quotOperantquot emphasizes that people operate on their environment too achieve some consequence Response contingency R gt S The response is associated with its consequence Reinforcer Any stimulus that increases the probability that preceding response will be repeated Can be anything Food candy money pain avoidance attention approval good grades sex Depends in part on the organism39s current state and past history BF Skinner Skinner Box Rat naturally explores Rat emits a response eventually presses lever A food pellet is delivered reinforcement to a fooddeprived rat Rat eats and resumes exploration Eventually presses bar again gets another reinforcement Leverpressing behaviour becomes increasingly likely Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning Type of Response Classical S comes before and elicits R R is involuntary Operant R is emitted followed by S R is voluntary Consequence of response Classical R does not achieve any result No change in environmental events Operant R achieves the S Response contingency Organism operates on environment to get a reinforcement Concept of reinforcement Further principles of operant conditioning Punishment An aversive stimulus that decreases the probability that the preceding response will be repeated Schedules of reinforcement Fixed Ratio vending machine Variable ration Slot machine Fixed interval paycheck Variable interval text messages Discriminative stimuli We have many conditioned responses that are frequently reinforcement Answering the telephone Talking to friends Drinking alcohol Watching TV Flirting Driving fast Grocery shopping Dancing Why aren39t we always engaging in these well learned behaviours What determines the circumstances under which a welllearned response will be produced So far a part of the model has been missing Discriminative stimulu So SD gt R gt S So are environmental stimuli that precede the response and cue you as to whether the response will be reinforced It tells you when given response contingency is in effect When a given response will or will not produce reinforcement May even tell you whether a given response will be reinforced or punished Allowing you to be quotdiscriminatingquot in how you behave CognitiveSocial Learning Not all learning can be explained in terms of pure SR connectionism How did you learn your way around campus Don t have to go to a given location to learn how to get there Cognitive maps How did you learn to drive a car To play Monopoly Observational learning Learning occurs without direct experience Vicarious reinforcement Observing a model being reinforced or punished increases or decreases your own probability of producing the same response Expectations about behavioural consequences Memory The capacity to encode store and retrieve information Types of memory Sensory Momentary duration Must be changed to another form or is lost forever Short term 1525 seconds Information gets bumped out or decays unless rehearsed Capacity is about 59 meaningful units called chunks Demon Long term Relatively permanent storage of information that has ltered through sensory and shortterm memory Several kinds Longterm memory Procedural Memory for how to do things Walk ride a bike button your shirt Declarative Memory for information Semantic memory Facts and information Current US President whose pro le is on 50 bill Episodic Eventspersonal experience First date last birthday moving in day Levels of processing theory Suggests the way material is initially perceived and analyzed determines how well it is recalled Depth of processing during exposure to material is critical At shallow levels information is processed merely in terms of its physical and sensory aspects Intermediate levels of processing information is translated into meaningful units Deepest levels or processing information is analyzed in terms of its meaning Elaborative rehearsal Reconstructive Memory Memory is encoded as representations not verbatim Schemas Theoretical memory structures Organized clusters of all information pertaining to particular topics Ex schemas for psychology baseball police of cers Umass Britney Spears etc Having an existing schema makes information easier to encode and store It gives you a basis for interpreting new information Retrieval Recognition versus recall Encoding speci city Serial position effect Primary effects Recency effects Forgetting Decay theory What observations are inconsistent Interference Proactive interference Retroactive interference Encoding Failures


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