Week 6 (Long-Term Memory, Pattern Recognition)
Week 6 (Long-Term Memory, Pattern Recognition) PSYC 2014
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Monday October 5 2015 Cognitive Psychology Multiple Choice Question From 930 Remembering learning in second grade that George Washington was America s first president is an example of A Semantic memory B Episodic memory C Implicit memory D Procedural memory Many different types of LTM The types have evolved into various separate functions we use Episodic Memory Some people say you don t have any of these memories because we ve spent our lives only in school Therefore you might have a semantic memory of this knowledge Ex the sun is the center of the solar system BUT you many have an episodic memory of actually learning this knowledge Ex your 5th grade teacher taught you that the sun was the center of the solar system using a fancy model and pointing to the sun That is an episodic memory Long Term Memory Continued Implicit Memory past experience influences present behavior in the absence of conscious awareness May have been aware of the behaviors while you were learning them but once you ve learned the basic steps you will no longer think about every specific aspect ofgoH Monday October 5 2015 In fact thinking about every aspect of golf while golfing would probably be detrimental to your game Simple Conditioning Perceptual Memory memory for perceptual events Not consciously seeing events We are talking about the action of perceiving lmplicit memory is always an action Repetition Priming facilitation in the processing of information consequent to recent exposure to information Burger King logo action of remembering that logo that allows you to remember it quicker Characteristics of LTM Basically only talk about explicit memory in this section Capacity of LTM The capacity is essentially unlimited You don t need to worry that if you learn all the stuff on our review sheet that you will forget your chemistry concepts Duration and forgetting in LTM Information can be retained in LTM over course of your lifetime Codes in LTM information retained in many different forms visual auditory motoric most often retained in semantic what is the meaning terms Most common is semantic encoding it in terms of the meaning Perception we are such stuff as dreams are made on And our little life is rounded with a sleep Memory something to the effect that we create life in our minds All the detail of how it was said or maybe the font it was written in is gone or the exact words just the general idea of the meaning Monday October 5 2015 Eidetic Memory form of LTM in which perceptual details of experiences are preserved Most people do NOT remember these things VIDEO A man was given a helicopter flight and then days later asked to draw a 5 yard panorama of the city gets every single detail right windows on buildings spacing all the roads etc Retrieval from LTM Process of bringing a memory back to awarenessconsciousness Only one thing can be retrieved at a given moment Retrieval Cue stimulus or thought that provokes retrieval of a memory Think of the video from last class it usually is the case with people like that that they are more susceptible to retrieval cues A lot of the time you don t have the right cue and so you don t bring memories into your consciousness A scentodor is usually a very good cue The scent at the time was permeating your senses and so when you smell it again you remember what was happening when you smelled it perviously Metamemory awareness of one s memory system and what resides there Feeling of Knowing feeling that one knows something without being able to recall it Do you know the answers to these questions or do you think you know it Which continent has the most countries Europe OR Africa Where is the lowest point in the continental US Death Valley OR Salton Sea In which country is Mount Everest Tibet OR Nepal Monday October 5 2015 Which is the northernmost state in the continental US Minnesota OR New Hampshire TipoftheTongue Phenomenon an item is almost but not quite retrieved Phonologically similar items are retrieved but the item itself is not retrieved Almost there in retrieval process but stuck Puts definitions on the screen the point is to see if anyone has a tip of the tongue phenomenon with trying to name what the word is Absolute ruler or tyrant DESPOT Shedding leaves each year as opposed to evergreen DECIDUOUS A person who acts as a substitute for another person SURROGATE A narrow strip of land by which two larger bodies of land are connected ISTHMUS Encoding Specificity capacity for remembering an event depends on whether retrieval cue matches what is coded in memory for the event Have a past experience that is coded in your memory in some way Everyone encodes their experiences in their own way everyone codes the experience differently ContextDependent Retrieval S s learn a list of words on shore or under sea S s recall list on shore or under sea Performance is best if learning and testing context match If you learned it on the beach you ll remember it better on the beach If you learned it under the sea you ll remember it better under the sea What does this say about the process of retrieval Monday October 5 2015 StateDependent Retrieval S s learn list after drinking alcohol or soda S s recall list after drinking alcohol or soda S s recall more words when drug states at learning and test match than when drug states do not may Autobiographical Memory Basically just episodic memory that is retrospective Infantile Amnesia almost total lack of memories for events occurring during the first twothree years of life Almost no memory for most people for first twothree years of their life It isn t like you39re a baby and don t remember what happened yesterday VVhy As a baby you re still developing and learning how to code events Maybe because there is a massive incoming of into preschool when you hit that age and so all the other stuff becomes less important Kids are just kind of hanging out when they39re little so maybe they don t really pay attention Can t reay speak yet and so they won t have an inner monologue Reminiscence Bump adults age older than 50 remember a disproportionate number of 39 events in the middle of their life 39 Why does this happen onbt of ham Events happening in this period are typically firsts Ex graduating high school driving a car getting a job etc I d In dq Monday October 5 2015 Emotional Memory when events have a strong emotional component memories of the events retain this emotional component Weapon Focus under emotional arousal our focus narrows When you become emotionally aroused your attention becomes more focused Ex won t remember what the robber looks like but will remember what the gunlookser Pollyanna Principle one tends to retain more pleasant than unpleasant memories Monday October 5 2015 Cognitive Psychology Long Term Memory Continued Neuropsychology of Memory Hippocampus where memory is housed Not part of the cerebral cortex Could be the place where all your senses come together to file it away in the memory 0 THEORY Hippocampal Amnesia amnesia occurring after damage or loss of the hippocampus Original finding came from a surgery that used to be done to help epilepsy in which they would take out the hippocampus both sides The seizures would stop but patient would lose their memory Retain sensory working procedural and perceptual memory These remain when you lose the hippocampus which is important to note in that these are probably help elsewhere Deficits of episodic and semantic memory Anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia Inertia and passivity Became obvious that hippocampus was required to store knowledge Why would you get retrograde amnesia when you lose the hippocampus Believed that there is a longterm process that goes on in the acquisition of knowledge that can take years and therefore you can lose those memories you were still storing in your memories Aspects of Memory disorders Monday October 5 2015 Anterograde Amnesia loss of LTM for things occurring after start of amnesia Retrograde Amnesia loss of LTM for things occurring before the start of amnesia VIDEO what would it mean to have no place in time A man with the worst case of amnesia ever Only person he recognizes is his wife His memory is about 30 seconds sometimes as short as 7 seconds Dissociative Identity Disorder Presence of two or more distinct personalities At least two of these recurrently in control of behavior Inability to recall personal information In particular some personalities wont remember what happened when the other personalities were in charge VIDEO man with DID who cannot remember what happens when the other personalities are in charge Has at least 53 different personalities Anterograde vs Retrograde Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia when his other personalities are in charge When SOME of the people are in control they cannot remember the other personality or what happened when the other personality was in charge NO anterograde amnesia with this disorder How prior knowledge affects memory Eyewitness Memories memories for critical events can be influenced by leading ques ons Not very good can be influenced by the way they are questioned Experiment Monday October 5 2015 Subjects watched a video of a car accident that was in reality very mild and then questioned about it afterwards Depending on how they were questioned their answers would adjust to whether they saw broken glass or not Much more likely to recall seeing broken glass if asked how fast were the cars going when they smashed versus saying hit Unable to separate line of questioning from the actual event they saw Recovered Memories upsetting childhood events are remembered after having been forgotten for years Typically some memory of abuse Always very important to be sure that those memories were not somehow instilled in the person by a therapist or something like that Hard to tell whether it actually happened or not and so there needs to be caution in questioning the person 39 VIDEO Woman testified against father saying she remembers seeing him holding a rock and killing her childhood friend Came out 6 years later that her therapist had hypnotized her at the time that she remembered this memory Became inadmissible in court and therefore the father could not be tried again Pattern Recognition LAST UNIT ON TEST Recognizing Patterns What we are dealing with is an image BottomUp Processing to identify an object look at visual features in visual input and compares the patterns of features with the patterns stored for different objects Thereby figuring out what the images is by the patterns already there Monday October 5 2015 Visual features in this picture might be a patch of yellow and a round object THEN you infer that the image is a lemon WHY do we do it that way Why wouldn39t we just first realize that it is a lemon versus a patch of yellow and round shape Or maybe why do we see a handle and a round opening at the top before we see a teacup Well maybe because all teacups look different so you need a frame of reference May be because it will increase the chances of you identifying the object correctly Our eyes can only focus on one thing at a time and so you cant really look at something holistically our field of view may be too small to identify the whole object at once Feature Detector signals whenever a certain feature is present in the perceptual input Basically detectors that just sit there until their signal comes along and then they recognize it and identify it to us TopDown Processing to identify an object visual system brings to bear expectations and hopes derived from past experiences In the case of the lemon and teacup again you put these things together and assume maybe because these are kitchen items this photo is a still of kitchen items Maybe you look for a glass and there is one and salt and its there You are NOT looking for toilet paper because that doesn t belong in the kitchen and so you may overlook it because it isn t something you expect or are looking for Example Dopkins brother was in a bar to meet women There was a woman across the bar waving for him to come over Eventually he went over very excited cause this has never happened and the woman turns out to be his sister He wasn t expecting her to be in a bar because she was too young and didn39t hope it was his sister because he wanted it to be an attractive woman for him to meet Gestalt Principles 1O Monday October 5 2015 Law of Proximity elements that are close together will be grouped together Probably the most important WHY is this a good thing What is it abut our worldobjects that makes that make sense In our world objects tend to be all in one place and so we should group them Ex a face you don t want to see an eye a mouth a nose you want to see it all together What do you see in this image A dog even though it isn39t outlined What do you see in this image It is sort of regrouping itself again and again right Because there are so many ways it can be organized and so your brain is seeing a ton of different patterns Soldiers wearing camouflage Why did it take them so long to figure out to wear camouflage used to wear bluered brown etc Guns were not that accurate and couldn t go that far and so wearing bluered before wasn39t a problem Obviously now guns are much more advanced Law of Common Fate elements that move together will be grouped together Actually beats camouflage why If it moves you will notice it Also if something moves when something else doesn t move you will know it is more than one thing BottomUp Processing How do we know that the object above was a teacup How do we put it all together Recognition by Components 11 12 Monday October 5 2015 1 Object segmented into 3D subobjects 2 Each subobject classified as exemplar of one of 36 geons basic categories of subobjects gt 3 Pattern of classified geons matched against patterns occurring for known objects If i see number five and number 4 i know it must be a teacup Irving Biederman development of this theory