HIST 150 week 7
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
HIST 150 week 7 108 Islam I Basic background information a The Arabian Peninsula was not part of the Roman empire but they were close trade partners the City of Petra in Jordan was a big trading hub between Africa Arabia and Rome b The two main cities were Mecca and Yathrib Yathrib had the Kaaba a building built by Abraham and Ishmael supposedly around a rock that fell from heaven dedicated to all religions c Allah means the god he has 3 daughters Allat moon Manat morning star and AlUzza evening star 11 Important peoplethings a Abraham and Haggai had a son names Ishmael who was the ancestor of all Muslims like Isaac was the branch of Abraham that Christians came from b Muhammed 570632 CE was born to a poor family that was part of a rich clan 1 He had an arranged marriage to Khadij a a rich woman who ran a business and during their marriage she was his only wife 2 While he was off trading and doing business agent things he started hearing voices which was Gibreel Gabriel Allah s messenger telling him the full revelation of Abraham s God the Quran The Quran had passages about how Christians and Jews could still be able to get into heaven if they followed their religions because they misunderstood the teachings of their leaders 3 He never wrote anything because he was illiterate 4 Muhammed thought that the Kaaba should only be for Muslims not other religions there were other religions who were worshiping their gods there because it was a rock that fell from heaven but not really speci cally dedicated to one religion 5 After Khadija died he ran to Medina where he declared Jihad holy war on Mecca because they wanted to kill him and were rejecting Allah Jihad was a defensive battle Muslims were never allowed to go on the offensive or initiate a war because Allah loveth not aggressors Some of his close followers Abu Bakr Omar Ali and Ayesha came with him 6 He married many women of powerful fathers to keep peace with people He married Ayesha Abu Bakr s daughter who was his new favorite wife because she asked questions of Muhammed about Islam and veiled her face to keep her beauty from distracting people from Allah 7 He died just after Mecca was regained c Khadija was Muhammed s first wife 1 She was the one who ran the business and owned the land 2 She encouraged him to listen to the voices that he was hearing and that he wasn t crazy 3 She taught the Quran and the other Islam teachings with her daughter Fatima 4 Before she died people had been threatening Muhammed s life so she plead with them to not kill him and gave them money after she died he had no protection so that is why he ran c The 5 Pillars of Islam are the ve basic teachings and requirements of Islam 1 There is no god but god and Muhammed is his prophet 2 Pray 5 times a day facing Medina from dawn to dusk 3 Giving charity and alms to the poor 4 Fast from dawn until dusk during Ramadan the 9th lunar month 5 If you re able to you ned to go to Mecca on pilgrimage during Ramadan d Hadith is sacred tradition I Khadija is called the savior of Islam because she encouraged Muhammed to listen to Gibreel 2 Praying towards Mecca Jihad and the 5 Pillars are part of Hadith III The Caliph is the leader of the Muslims like the Pope to Christians a The rst Caliph was Abu Bakr who was elected by Muhammed s inner circle 1 When people were claiming to be prophets of Allah he decided that Muhammed was the Seal of the Prophets saying that not only was he the greatest prophet but he was also the last one b Omar and Othman were the next two Caliphs 1 They conquered territory for Islam not Jihad totally political 2 Byzantine land was easy to take because they were not very many people 3 Any Christians and Jews were allowed to keep practicing their religions but they had to pay Muslim taX for the poor Muslims weren t allowed to force people to convert 4 Othman was assassinated because he wasn t Muslim enough by Kharisites who turned to Ali as their Caliph c Ali was Muhammed s soninlaw married Fatima his favorite daughter 1 He transformed Damascus into the main place where Muslims lived for economic purposes but Mecca was still the religious center 2 During this time there was a rebellion led by Ayesha Muhammed s favorite wife where it was ordered that she should be taken alive because she had been his wife 3 He was also assassinated d Muawiyah was the first dynasty to begin being Caliphs Umayyad was the first from Omar s family e There was a huge split during this time called the SunniShiite Split 1 The Sunnis were the majority in most places and thought that everything was fine as it was 2 The Shiites thought that the Caliph should be someone from the same bloodline as Muhammed they turned to Hussein son of Fatima and Ali as Caliph They were looking and hoping for the day of judgement to come Madhi would come to lead them to heaven f The next dynasty was the Abbasids l Abu l Abbas was the first he was from Muhammed s bloodline 2 During this dynasty Baghdad became the new hotspot for trading It was a port city that extended the Silk Road overseas and merchants brought back compasses from China astrolabes from Rome and the Indian number systemwhich we call Arabic numerals
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