Photosynthesis (weeks 5&6)
Photosynthesis (weeks 5&6) Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms)
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Sawyer on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms) at James Madison University taught by Dr. Oliver Hyman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms (Bio 114) in Biology at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Bioll4 Organisms Notes for weeks 5 and 6 Every Cell in Every Organism does Glycoysis Organisms that can t do photosynthesis have to compete for glucose including both plants and animals Photosynthesis is the process of taking chemical energy and transferring it to glucose so it then be taken into glycolysis Organisms that can do photosynthesis can MAKE their own glucose Since all organisms does glycolysis it tells us that there is a common ancestor even in the rst cell What s the point of photosynthesis What kind of reaction is it How do you know To make glucose and ATP get initial energy from the sun Photosynthesis is taking H20 COZ l C6H1206 OZ 0 Where HZO is being oxidized into OZ 0 And C02 is being reduced to C6H1206 0 OZ is considered a byproduct When did photosynthesis being Earth was formed 45 billion years ago bya Around Z7bya the rst photosynthetic bacteria was found Around 22 15 bya oxygen given off as a byproduct of photosynthesis began to accumulate into Earth s atmosphere The presence of oxygen allowed for the beginning of evolution and diverse organisms since they now have OZ for cellular respiration Over years and years OZ gradually rose to the current levels today which allowed for humans to begin their lives Oxygen levels will continue to expand Photosynthesis rst evolved in prokaryotes l cyanobacteria Consequences of Photosynthetic Organisms Ozone level forms The ozone level protects us form most of suns harmful rays It acts a key role in quotCarbon Cyclingquot since photosynthesis requires COZ as a reactant meaning they stop COZ from getting trapped in the atmosphere lf photosynthesis stopped the carbon would get stuck in the atmosphere and the carbon levels would increases directly as a result Temperature would also be effected since there is now ozone and carbon cycling temperature is now lower that what it was but since COZ sometimes get trapped it causes temperature to rise because some rays are re ected backwards SIDE green house gases trap more heat in the atmosphere because there is an increase in C02 levels Photosynthesis removes anthropogenic C02 levels There are times in the year where C02 levels are lower than others and that is typically in the winter months C yanobacteria the rst photosynthetic prokaryote First organism to introduce oxygen about 27bya They live in fresh water soul moist surfaces and various other organisms They have no specialized compartment photosynthesis takes place without chloroplasts in this organism it takes place on the membranes throughout the cytosol Fist Eukaryotes to Use Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems Diatoms and green algae 0 Green Algae Multicellular Euk o Diatoms Singlecelled euk Organisms Produce 12 of carbon and oxygen in oceans Together with cyanobacteria they are the three primary producers for aquatic food chains because they are the main source of glucose They make up 12 of photosynthesis in the ocean First Eukaryotes to Use Photosynthesis in Terrestrial Environments Photosynthesis happens I the chloroplastthis is for all eukaryotes Land plants are the primary producers for the terrestrial food chains Each plant cell typically have 4050 chloroplasts 5UN LIGHT ISN T TRANSFORMED INTO SUGAR It s rather a matter conservation bc everything is balanced out lt s taking energy from sunlight and taking it into the bonds chemical bond energy Photosynthesis is the transfer of energy from light energy to chemical energy with a reduced carbon molecule 0 Equation Light H20 l 02 chemical energy in the many C H bonds of sugar HOW is Light Energy Captured Chlorophyll captures light energy and turns it into chemical energy Noone has been able to replicate this molecule SIDE In order for photosynthesis to take place C02 and H20 must be present BUT HOW do they get H20 Aquatic organisms get it through osmosis by diffusing through the cell membrane Land plants get it through rain water that are taken up my the stomata in the plants little openings on the surface of leafs in plants How do they get C02 Natural way respiration 95 Anthropogenic production fossil fuel burning 5 Photosynthesis 104 Lecture notes Overview Photosynthesis rst evolved in cyanobacteria It transforms every in sunlight direction into chemical energy in the bonds of glucose It helps photosynthetic organisms for glucose with non photosynthetic organisms for glucose Main goal is to produce glucose Equann 6C02 6H20 l 602 C6H1206 C s are being reduced O s are being oxidized TIP when trying to gure out which is being oxidized and which is being reduced follow the hydrogen s bc of electrons typically when something is being reduced it is going to have more hydrogen s with it bc of hydrogen carry electrons Broad Path way of Photosynthesis quotlPl Ipt Il39 Synthesis 6 Goal Hi3 a 39 Convert lEM A Radiation me Pi ATP r l tn Chem Ea MADHH t Hl all IH39 g 7 a I lcgliviin cytlla l 1 Sunlight strikes the organism H20 enters the light capturing reaction site and gets converted to 02 as waste When light energy strikes the organism it goes through the light capturing reaction site and is converted into chemical energy ATP and NADPH are formed from light capturing reactions and go through the Calvin cycle and come out oxidized in the form ADP Pi and NADP H C02 enters the Calvin Cycle and runs its course through the cycle and it is here where chemical energy from light capturing reactions gets transformed to more chemical energy this time in the form of sugar Now it s ready for glycolysis In Eukaryotes photosynthesis reactions happen Within different sections of the chloroplast The chloroplast is just like the mitochondria in cellular respiration structure wise The chloroplast has an inner and outer membrane Light reactions take place in the thylakoids inner membrane The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma space outside of the thylakoids it s a liquid substance 7ypes of Energy 7739ansfer in Photosynthesis Sun ATP and NADPH Chemical energy in the form of sugar Other wise stated Electromagnetic l chemical l chemical The rst reaction is the light reactionsquot takes place in thylakoids The second reaction is the Calvin Cyclequot takes place in the stroma The light reactions photo light The Calvin Cycle synthesis converted into a more complex molecule Calvin Cycle can ONLY use ATP available in the chloroplast from LIGHT REACTIONS lt CANNOT use ATP generated from cell respiration At What time of day does the Calvin Cycle reactions occur in most plants anol Why Answer During the day only because ATP is only generated in the chloroplast when light is available Summary of Broad Overview 1 Lightcapturing reactions convert light energy into chemical energy in ATP and NADPH Lightcapturing reactions oxidize H20 into OZ Lightcapturing reactions occur in the chloroplast The Calvin cycle oxidizes ATP and NADPH produced by light capturing reactions Calvin cycle takes in C02 and puts out sugars The Calvin Cycle converts chemical energy from the light capturing reactions into chemical energy in the form of sugar 7 The Calvin Cycle occurs in the chloroplast 901 KPUN Where do LightCapturing reactions occur Thylakoids membranous structures inside chloroplasts where light reactions occur Thylakoids are stacked up in the chloroplast In one thylakoid they are surrounded by a membrane which is a lipid bilayer The inside space of a thylakoid is a lumen Lightcapturing reactions in more detail There are two types of photosystems photosystem I and photosystem II Photosystems act as an ETC much like the one in cellular respiration Embedded in the membranes of thylakoids Composed of 200300 chlorophyll molecules pigments and proteins EX 0f ONE photosystem Primaw electron acceplpra Light Electron transfer Flea Eton mintm m m39bir planargig i Photosystem ll Main goal is to generate ATP and NADPH Splits H20 and uses its electrons to pump the H down the concentration gradient across the membrane which there it will move through the ATP synthase to then make ATP Takes light energy and converts it into chemical energy How does the photosystem work Answer A photon light energy hits chlorophyll cells aka antenna complex which causes the electrons to get excited and shoot off the reaction center The electrons then help transports H down the concentration gradient through the proton motive force similar to the one used in the ETC which then generates ATP by ATP synthase Why is water needed in photosynthesis Answer Water is needed to donate its electrons to replace the ones that are shot off once they hit their excited state Water is also needed to form 02 Without water the organisms dies because there will be no more electrons present and no 02 could be produced Photosystem ATP in the stroma form PSII is used in the Calvin Cycle but the Calvin Cycle also needs energy from NADHP l generated in PSI The goal of PSI is to form NADPH This is the second step of photosynthesis when it converts light energy to chemical energy in the form of NADPH PSI is connected to PSII The electron coming down the chain of PSII replaces the excited electrons in PSI Water does not directly interact with PSI Photon lu ihglgllml mnmhmn Electra1an g rearms tar m g ligi l g m E quot 7 The electron transport chain in this diagram aka cytochrome Summary of the light reactions 1 Light strikes the rst photosystem causing it to transfer excited electron to the primary electron acceptor Theses electrons are 4 replaced by splitting a molecules of water which releases oxygen as a waste product The excited electrons trace down an electron transport chain This process pumps H ions across the membranes into the thylakoid Lightexcited electrons in the second photosystem are transferred to NADP These electrons are replaced by those coming from the electron transport chain The back ow of hydrogen ions out of the thylakoid powers ATP production Steps onethree take place inside the thylakoid Step four takes place in the stroma After light reactions 1 2 Oxygen passes out of the chloroplast and the cell membranes or to mitochondria for respiration ATP and NADPH are available in the stroma to be used by the Calvin cycle Overview of What happens during Photosynthesis 1 2 Energy from C02 to be reduced to sugar comes directly from NADPH and ATP PSI and P5 are similar but have two slightly different jobs one produces the energy to fuel the proton gradient in the thylakoid lumen and the other reduces NADP and NADPH using electrons from water The ATP generated by P5 is used in the Calvin cycle to make sugar Both photosystems lose electrons that must get replaced by other electrons Calvin Cycle Big Picture Carmine are symbolized are red itsnails to ll lElii39 you follow I 2 I them through the cycle 7 5 g 1A 39phl i p l39rlegliyezerete 6 ATP E iDlP an 77 nutHill 3 ATP NAB P lH r wwnmnw EH r Gilliman fiquotlfluir SIDE overall there is an input of three C02 molecules and an output of one G3P molecule both have three electrons though Point one takes CO2 and builds it into a higher energy molecule this process is a reduction process and generates G3P l glucose and fructose Point two matter is conserved chemical structures change but the total number of carbons does not Calvin Cycle Steps 1 Fixation of carbon dioxide carbon fixation taking inorganic carbon to organic carbon 2 Reduction of three phosphor glycerate to G3P 3 Regeneration of RuBP from GBP SIDE Overall all GBP generated from the Calvin cycle can now be converted to carbon molecules that provide the organism with energy sugars OR carbon building blocks Nucleic acids proteins etc Fates 0f G3P October 7 2015 1 G3P is converted to glucose and is then locally used by the leaf cell fro cellular respiration to generate ATP 2 G3P is converted to sucrose and transported to other parts of the organism and is used for cellular respiration to generate ATP 3 Sugar stored as starch chains of sugar in a leaf cell At night it gets broken down to sucrose and transported throughout the plant for energy a Starch is how sugar is stored b Starch the warehouse c So at night photosynthesis can still be taking place 4 Sugar is transported to roots where it is stored as starch long term until the spring when it s needed to grow new leaves 5 GBP from the Calvin cycle is transported throughout the plant and is used by cells to build new carbon containing molecules Overview of the fates of G3P 1 lGBP can be directly converted into glucose sucrose and starch 2 After converted into glucose sucrose and starch it goes into cellular respiration which can happen at any time of day 3 After cellular respiration ATP and C02 is the output 4 ATP and CO2 go back into the atmosphere 1 C s for proteins nucleic acids cellulose etc 2 Biosynthesis 3 quotStoredquot in plant How do plants grow Plants need carbon to make sugars for cellular respiration but they also need carbon to make new carbon containing molecules nucleotides amino acids and fats they do this through biosynthesis Where do carbon atoms come from in photosynthesis Answer carbon dioxide SIDE If all CO2 that entered via photosynthesis were converted back to CO2 by cellular respiration plants wouldn t grow Where does a tree get its dry biomass from considering it started from a seed Answer CO2 in the air
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