Chapter 8: Memory & Chapter 9: Thinking and Language-Lecture Notes
Chapter 8: Memory & Chapter 9: Thinking and Language-Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Lecture Notes Chapter 8 Memory and Chapter 9 Thinking and Language October 59 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr Rollins Chapter 8 Memory 9holds information while we manipulate it b Storage capacity is limited c Immediate memory span the maximum number of items we can recall perfectly after one presentation i 7 2 59 is normal a Unlimited capacity and duration Once something is in our longterm memory it doesn t go away b 9conscious memories i 9holds our personal experiences and life events ii 9holds impersonal facts and generalized knowledge c 9Unconscious in uence of past experiences on our current behavior and thinking i 9holds the information for routine skills and automatic tasks ii Priming classical conditioning 3 9 Stimuli that help us to remember something a Network of association b 9when you receive a retrieval cue that activates your mental concept of that cue and that concept spreads to other networks of association that are related i When you think of something you are likely to think of related things c 9the environment provides you with external cues that jog your memory d 9your internal emotions state provide you with internal cues that job your memory 4 Reasons for Forgetting Encoding Failure b Storage Decay fading of unused memories c Retrieval Failure i Evidence retrieval cues often bring back memories and it is easier to releam things for the second time d Ebbinghaus and the forgetting curve i Forgetting levels off 5 Constructing Memories a Memory is subjective easily in uenced continually revised and in uenced by beliefs and expectations i Abstract mental frameworks that organize informationwhat we know and expect about the world ii Develop over time with repeated experiences iii 9we have a tendency to mold information to t into our existing schemas iv In uence what we notice and how we remember it c 9when misinformation in uences our memories i Eyewitness testimonies can easily be altered by new information questioning and subtle suggestions ii We often remember what never happened d Can traumatic memories be repressed and then recovered i No clear answer however people are much more likely to over remember trauma 6 Biological Bases of Memory a Changes in the brain s synapses i New synapses may be formed or existing synapses might become more effective b Explicit Memories i Hippocampus convert shortterm memories to longterm memories ii Frontal and Temporal lobes long term storage c Implicit Memories i Cerebellum classical conditioning ii Basal Ganglia procedural memory 7 Amnesia a i Loss of memory of one s past ii Results from general trauma and widespread damage to the brain iii Gradual recovery 1 Recover early memories first b i Can t transfer shortterm memories to longterm memories ii Cannot form new explicit memories 1 Only remember new information for 30 seconds iii Implicit memory is still intact iv Results from damage to the hippocampus v Case study on patient HM Chapter 9 Thinking and Language 9 manipulating and transforming information 2 Cognitive Errors a 9the tendency to seek out con rmatory evidence b 9the tendency to cling to our beliefs i Biased evaluation of evidence c 9the tendency to overestimate our accuracy d 9the tendency for people lacking skill or knowledge in an area to overestimate their skill or knowledge in that area i The more ignorant you are the more con dent you tend to be a Symbols words letters sounds gestures Grammar the rules for combining syllables in meaningful ways b Stages of learning language i 4 months9meaningless syllable repetitions and sounds ii 10 monthsbabbling resembles household language 1 Unused sounds drop out iii 12 monthsone word stage iv 24 monthstwo word stage 1 Overgeneralization of grammatical rules v what we understand develops more quickly than what we produce 4 Language Acquisition a A large amount of evidence suggests we are biologically predisposed to acquire language i Rapid rate and method of learning ii Language is not just a result of imitation iii Reinforcement isn t necessary iv The only thing necessary for children to acquire language is for them to be exposed to it 1 Feral children Jeanie was found at age 13 Without early exposure to language she never fully developed language skills 2 Children lacking exposure to language before age 7 often never develop language 3 If you learn a 2nd language in early childhood you will develop a better understanding of the grammar then if you learn it as an adult 5 9language in uences thinking perception and memory a We are better able to think about perceive and remember things if we have words for them Different languages in uence quality of thought processes b People often have a different sense of self when they use different languages c Bilingual advantages cognitive exibility creativity language skills and attention control 7 9language used to in uence our perception of reality a negative patient care outcome death b preowned used c detainee prisoner
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