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Week 6 Notes

by: Morgan Mechelke
Morgan Mechelke
GPA 3.76
Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors
Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin

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Here's what you need to know from week 6 of lecture!
Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors
Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Mechelke on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NEP 1034H - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dale Brigham,Jo Britt-Rankin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Current Concepts and Controversies-Honors in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
LECTURE NOTES 10515 Sodium c an electrolyte charged ion 0 functions regulation of fluid balance 0 also transports substances across cell membranes kidneys maintain sodium level reducing increasing excretion as needed UL set to reduce risk of hypertension 0 a silent killer no symptoms 0 contributes to atherosclerosis damaged arteries 0 blood pressure force that blood exerts on artery walls Potassium 0 functions fluid balance electrolyte inside cells blood buffer keeps blood pH and acidbase balance 0 muscle contraction and nerve impulse conduction bone health reduces kidney stones 0 too much hyperkalemia gt irregular heartbeats 0 too little hypokalemia gt muscle weakness cramps paralysis O O O 0 Calcium 0 most abundant mineral in body 0 functions 0 builds strong bones and teeth 0 helps muscles nerves blood 0 regulate blood pressure 0 too much gt hypercalcemia impaired kidneys calcium deposits in body 0 too little gt less dense weakened brittle bones increased risk for osteoporosis holes in the bone osteo bone porous hole Osteoporosis 0 risk factors 0 females at higher risk I smallerboned petite women 0 caucasian asianamerican at higher risk Phosphorous 0 second most abundant mineral in body 0 functions 0 bones and teeth 0 cell membranes 0 energy metabolism and stores 0 blood buffer 0 DNA and RNA 0 too little gt muscle weakness bone pain rickets confusion death Magnesium 0 4th most abundant mineral in body 0 functions 0 helps enzymes incl energy metabolism 0 protein synthesis 0 muscle and nerve function 0 healthy bones and regular heartbeat Chloride 0 part of hydrochloric acid in the stomach to enhance protein digestion 0 functions 0 electrolytes outside of cells and in blood to help maintain fluid balance 0 buffer to keep blood at normal pH 0 food sources salt NaCl main source Sulfur 0 component of other compounds in body including some B vitamins 0 functions 0 helps give some proteins 3D shape 0 sulfites used as food preservatives o detoxifier LECTURE NOTES 10715 lron two forms heme and nonheme o heme from animal sources part of hemoglobin and myoglobin easily absorbed o nonheme in plant foods not as easily absorbed due to phytates I Vit C helps absorption of nonheme iron functions 0 transports 02 hemoglobin in red blood cells does 0 myoglobin transports and stores 02 in muscle cells 0 helps enzymes that make neurotransmitters RDA greater for women deficiency most common nutritional disorder in world normal vs anemic blood cells 0 anemia gt lesser amount of hemoglobin Copper functions 0 part of enzymes and proteins 0 iron absorption and transfer synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells 0 generates energy in cells synthesize melanin links proteins collagen and elastin together in connective tissues 0 protects cells from free radicals 0 blood clotting maintaining healthy immune system deficiency is rare food sources organ meats seafood nuts too much copper interferes with zinc absorption helps function of gt 100 enzymes functions 0 DNA synthesis growth 0 taste acuity 0 food sources meat seafood whole grains 0 deficiency gt hair loss delayed maturation impaired growth Selenium 0 part of selenoproteins many are enzymes 0 functions 0 selenoproteins I regulates thyroid hormones I acts as antioxidants I fights cancer 0 selenosis toxic condition resulting from too much selenium Fluoride 0 functions 0 protects against dental caries O repairs enamel 0 reduces amount of acid bacteria produced 0 provides protective barrier o drinking water has been fluoridated in US 0 can cause bone problems 0 fluorosis result of too much fluoride mottling staining when teeth are forming during infancy and childhood Chromium 0 functions 0 helps insulin in the body I increases effectiveness in cells 0 blood glucose control theorized 0 does NOT help build muscle mass lodine 0 functions 0 thyroid hormones growth hormone I regulate metabolic rate help heart nerves muscle intestinal function 0 too much gt impaired thyroid function decreases synthesis and release of hormones o deficiency gt goiter enlarged thyroid gland adults 0 cretinism congenital hypothyroidism children Manganese 0 functions 0 enzymes involved in metabolism of carbs fats amino acids 0 formation of bones Molybdenum 0 functions part of enzymes involved in breakdown of certain amino acids and other compounds 0 food sources legumes grains nuts Other Minerals 0 Arsenic o Boron o Nickel 0 Silicon o Vanadium o exist in body but essential role in humans not established by research LECTURE NOTES 10915 ALCOHOL ethanol is the type of alcohol consumed in alcoholic beverages 0 made by fermentation of yeast and natural sugars in grains and fruits moderate alcohol consumption no more than 1 drinkday for women 2 for men 0 helps elevate HDL cholesterol bene cial 0 standard drink sizes contain about 5 oz of alcohol alcohol is a toxin body works to metabolize and eliminate it absorption in stomach and small intestine 0 food in stomach slows alcohol absorption Blood alcohol concentration BAC amt of alcohol in your breath Effects on your brain depressant of central nervous system slows down transmission of nerve impulses and reaction time can suppress activities of brain stem breathing heart rate resulting in death Other effects of alcohol can disrupt sleep alcohol is a diuretic can interact with hormones o interferes with insulin glucagon o can increase risk of osteoporosis 0 can increase estrogen levels in women may increase risk of breast cancer 7 calg gt increases fat and weight around stomach can interfere with absorption of vitamins and minerals can harm your digestive organs heart and liver can put a healthy pregnancy at risk Alcohol abuse and alcoholism illegal to drive with BAC of 008


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