October 1-9 Book and Class notes
October 1-9 Book and Class notes Biol 160
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 160 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Graf in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Biology 160 Professor Graf Chapter 10 Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals Order in Diversity 0 Taxonomy I Arrangement Law I Produces a formal system for naming and grouping species to communicate this order Linnaeus and Taxonomy 0 Aristotle was the first to classify organisms according to structural similarities O Carolus Linnaeus designed current scheme of classification I All living things included 0 Hierarchical System I Taxa Major groupings of organisms I Taxonomic Ranks 0 Expanded since Linnaeus s time as far as number of species named 0 Seven Ranks Descending Order 0 000000 Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Memory Trick King Phillip Came Over From Germany Singing 0 All organisms classified by all 7 I Some parts have subgroups I Binomial Nomenclature 0 System for naming species 0 Latinized name composed of two words Ex Genus species I Genus is a proper noun 0 Species epithet is an adjective Species 0 Common Descent I Central idea to nearly all modern concepts of evolution O Smallest Distinct Groupings I Organisms sharing patterns of ancestry and descent 0 Reproductive Community I Sexually compatible for interbreeding 0 Geographic Range I Cosmopolitan Large geographic range between animals I Endemic Restricted geographic distribution 0 Typological Species Concept I PreDarwin It was thought that there was not evolution I Type Specimen Ideal for species 0 Biological Species Concept I Inspired by Darwin Evolutionary Concept I Interbreeding Populations and Sibling Species are what is outlined O Evolutionary and Cohesion Species Concept I Evolutionary Species Concept Descent with Modification I Cohesion Species Concept The most inclusive population of individuals sharing potential for phenotypic cohesion through intense cohesion mechanisms 0 Phylogenetic Species Concept I Irreducible grouping of organisms diagnosably distinct from other such grouping and within which there is a potential pattern of ancestry and descent 0 DNA Barcoding I Technique to identify organisms to species using sequence information 0 Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction O Homology I Character similarity from common descent O Homoplasy I Character similarity that misrepresents common descent 0 Using Character Variation to Reconstruct Phylogeny I Ancestral I Derived Character States I Outgroup Comparison I Clades I Synomorphy I Nested Hierarchy I Cladogram I Nodes I Cladogenesis I Anagenesis Biology 160 Professor Graf Lecture 10 Theory of Evolution 0 What are we trying to Explain 0 000 0 Order in the natural world I Living things share certain characteristics I Hierarchy of life s organization I Different kinds of organization What is the source of such complexity Organisms have traits that fit them to their habits Life is designed for its specific function What is the natural process that could produce such patterns 0 PreDarwinian Science 0 Explanation of organization of life and nonlife recognized in Great Chain of Being I Understood since ancient Greece I Lower forms of life to higher forms of life 0 Ex Trees gt Animals gt Peasants gt Nobles gt Kings gt Gods Genesis 1 account of creation Everything was created in a week I Christianity James Usher Archbishop of Armagh 15811656 I Used bible to calculate first day of creation Sun Oct 23 4004 be Natural Theology I Studying natural world was a way to understand Creator I Paley 0 Argument changed Design is evidence of the designer Theory of Special Creation I Process 0 All species of plants and animals come to be from individual acts of creation I Believed Patterns 0 Species do not change over time 0 Species created independently 0 All species on Earth were created recently within the last 6000 years I Actual Patterns 0 Species DO change over time 0 Species not created independently 0 All species on earth were created within the last 46 billion years Darwin 0 Applied Theory of Special Creation 0 Born Feb 12 1809 0 Originally studied medicine then switched to Theology The Voyage 0 Voyage of the HMS Beagle gt Opened Darwin s mind to problems with Special Creation Theory 0 Darwin picked as the ship s naturalist 0 1836 Returned as a confused creationist 0 1837 Theory of Transmutation 0 1858 Alfred Russel Wallace and Darwin came up with the same idea 0 1859 Darwin s first book published Homology 0 Traits that do not support idea that species were created independently gt EX Vestigial organs Transitional Forms 0 Not consistent with independent creation 0 Not explained by Theory of Special Creation Geological Evidence 0 Indicated Earth was older than 6000 years old gt Theory of Special Creation applies to Earths will Catastrophism gt Charles Lyell promoted Uniformitarism 0 The present is the key to the past Earth is 46 Billion years old Biology 160 Professor Graf Lecture 11 Theory of Natural Selection 0 Darwin Proposed an Alternative 0 Theory of Evolution I Descent with modification I Natural Selection 0 Patterns 0 Microevolution Species change through long periods of time 0 Macroevolution Species are derived from other species 0 Earth and life on it are considerably older than thought to be 0 Darwin s hypothesis based on observations of domesticated plants and animals I Artificial selection 0 Four postulates of Natural Selection I Individuals vary within a population Variation I Variations are passed from parents to offspring Heritable I Individuals differ in capacity to survive and reproduce Fitness I Survival and Reproduction is nonrandom with respect to individual variations Natural Selection I Survival of the Fittest 0 Evolution hypothetical I Individuals Vary I Traits are inherited I Differential survival I Survival non random I Adaptation Trait that is a product of natural selection 0 Darwin s Finches O Galapagos Island I 13 Species and 1 on nearby Cocos island I John Gould recognized difference 0 Peter and Rosemary Grant I Have been studying populations since 1973 Biology 160 Professor Graf Lecture 12 Speciation I What process do species change overtime O Equilibrium I Population not evolving I Can happen if all 3 conditions are met I No variation Nothing for selection to act on 0 Random mating Ensures variation is equally represented in subsequent generations 0 Infinitely larger Populations are not susceptible to random uctuations I Conditions are NEVER met 0 What is a species I Population of organisms that is I Capable of interbreeding I Held together by ancestordescent relationships among individuals I New species created when relationships are disrupted I Species are dynamic 0 Evolution in isolation can result in new species I Allopatric Speciation 0 Formation of new species by geographical locations 0 Most common mechanism 0 How was evolutionary theory changed since 1859 O 1970 Scientific community convinced of pattern but not evolutionary process 0 Early 20th century genetics through to NOT support natural selection 0 Four Postulates of Evolution Revised 0 No debate in scientific community about fact of evolution 0 Some have abused Survival of the Fittest to justify bad behavior I Nazis in Europe I Eugenics in USA Biology 160 Professor Graf Lecture 13 Classification and Phylogeny I What is the problem we are trying to solve 0 Long recognized order in organismal diversity I Historically Just made lists of names 0 By mid1700 s there were problems I There were names for different organisms depending on country name I Too many species to keep track of 0 Today 15 million species of plants and animals described I How to keep track of them I How to communicate about them 0 How was this problem solved before Darwin 0 Library of Congress I Classify books by subject instead of arbitrary ways size color author etc I Takes broad subjects and narrows them down to a specific subject 0 Ex Science gt Zoology gt General 0 Abbreviated system with numbers and letters 0 Linnaeus s purpose was to develop a similar information retrieval system I Carolus Linnaeus I Hierarchical system Groups within groups I Each level of hierarchy a taxonomic rank Taxon I Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species I Human classification Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens I Binomial nomenclature 0 2 Latin words 0 Generic name Genus 0 Specific name Species I Can be 3 words if there is a subspecies 0 Always Italicized or underlined I Can depict hierarchy as branching diagram Cladogram 0 How has evolutionary theory changed our thinking 0 Theory can be depicted as a tree I Anagenesis microevolution I Cladogenesis macroevolution I PhylogenyPhylogenetic Tree Actual branching pattern I Cladogram Diagram depicting evolutionary branching I Phylogeny Evolutionary history I Branch shows microevolution I Node Shows macroevolution Biology 160 Professor Graf Lecture 14 Phylogenetic Biology 0 What terminology is important When talking about phylogeny O O 0 Can depict history of character change I CharacterTrait Monophyletic Clade diagnosed by derived characteristics Derived Character An ancestor of ALL its descendants 0 How do we discover phylogenies O O O O O O O 0 We do not watch evolution happen Outgroup determines ancestral characters of ingroup Find cladogram with highest internal consistency Several challenges that complicate parsimony analysis Convergent evolution is common I Leads to confusion Solution Look at LOTS of characteristics Coding morphological characters Solution Look at molecular characteristics 0 How has the study of phylogeny change classification