Week 6 - Lecture Notes
Week 6 - Lecture Notes COMM370010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Theories of Mass Communication Week 6 Encoding Encoding the translation of purpose intention or meaning into symbols or codes Statements expression of fact or opinion Reports statement capable of verification and excludes inferences and judgements 0 It s checkable through other sources 0 Fit very well into surveillance function of media made up of facts eyewitness accounts vote tallies etc 0 Can be slanted may highlight certain favorable or unfavorable details of what is being described 0 Mann 1974 conducted study of Vietnam war protests and estimates of crowd size via news reports I Usually impossible to know this exact number I Estimate that newspaper gave was dependent on the paper s stance on the war 0 Pro war 9 estimated smaller crowds o Anti war 9 estimated larger crowds Inferences any statement about another person s thoughts or feelings about the unknown derived from what we do know 0 Make these based on what we see but you don t actually know if it s true 0 Any statement about the future is an inference 0 Weather forecasts election projections are also examples 0 Can be labeled as probably seemed or judging from Judgments expression of approval or disapproval for an occurrence a person or an object 0 May be presented as a report reporter may say an elected official is doing a poor job 0 With no facts in those situations to back those up these are only the reporter s opinions 0 Typically transmit bias because they represent opinions o Merrill 1965 did a content analysis study of TIME magazine I Found 6 categories of bias 0 Attribution bias I Truman snapped gives a negative connotation 9 judgement o Adjective bias I Eisenhower s warm manner of speaking modifiers of nouns o Adverbial bias I Truman said curtly modifiers of actions verbs o Outright opinion Theories of Mass Communication Week 6 I Seldom has a more unpopular man fired a more popular man very opinionated no facts to back this up 0 Contextual bias I Bias in whole sentences paragraphs or stories 0 Photographic bias I How is someone presented in a picture What does the caption say imply 9 very visual form of bias 0 Similar studies were also done in the 70s 9 found the same biases in TIME a supposedly unbiased provider of news and information o Friedman Mertz and Dimatteo 1980 studied facial expressions of news anchors I Watched news segments with no audio to see how positive or negative news anchor seemed to be How Does This Relate to Encoding It is difficult to remain objective and not communicate some sort of bias Most statements are to some degree a statement about the speaker Best way to avoid this use verifiable reports END OF EXAM 1 MATERIAL 8 Worst Questions from Exam 1 Which of the following is NOT a tool of science A a concept B tenacity 9 tradition is not science C variable D All of the above are actually tools of science E Actually none of the above is a tool of science While reading a newspaper articles you see the phrase First Lady Michelle Obama smiled warmly What type of bias is this article guilty of using A Adjective bias B Adverbial bias C Attribution bias D Contextual bias E Outright opinion True or False The Dvorak keyboard was an innovation which did not diffuse The primary reason it did not diffuse was because there was not relative advantage to the Dvorak keyboard as compared to the existing and widely used QWERTY keyboard A True B False 9 it had a relative advantage but it lacked compatibility Theories of Mass Communication Week 6 Which of the following is NOT TRUE about early research on groups A Asch s research showed that group pressures in uence individual declarations B Asch s research showed that reference groups were more in uential than primary groups 9 he didn t study reference groups he focused on casual groups C Lewin s food studies showed that group discussion in uences the persuasiveness of lecture material D Sherif s research using the autokinetic light effect showed that even casual groups in uence individual perception E All of the above Mass communication theory is based on authority intuition science 9 the others are all related to naive theory tenacity All of the above moowgt One of the chief dysfunctions of the surveillance function of media in society is that the presentation of too much information may force them into a state of apathy or passivity What is this effect also known as A depersonalization B dissonance C gatekeeping D homophily E narcotizing 9 imagine like a narcotic where it dulls your senses Jacqueline decides to Skype with her friend Kat who is studying abroad this semester in Norway Jacqueline tells Kat about her relationship with her boyfriend about the classes she s taking this semester and about her recent car troubles Unfortunately throughout the chat the video freezes forcing Kat to reload the program and in turn missing pieces of the conversation Jacqueline can visibly see Kat s frustration with the technology and decides to try their chat another time hopefully when Skype is working properly and both have stronger WiFi signals Which of the following five theories best explains the situation described A Information Theory 9 talking back and forth then there is noise B Social Accessibility Theory C Social Identification Theory D Theory of Idiosyncrasy Credit E Two Step Flow Typically critical theorists view the media as a filter interpreter mirror screen 9 see it as a barrier window WUOWgt Theories of Mass Communication Week 6 to society and the world Audiences An audience is defined as a group of spectators Historical Notions of Audiences Typically planned for in advance whoever is leading the presentation to the audience knows they will be communicating in a group setting Localized in time and place television program event occurs at the same time but you are locked into one physical location Public and open messages anyone in the group has access to the presented information Setting indicated rank and status historically where someone was an audience member indicated social status 0 Ex going to see a play on Broadway versus going to see a movie at a local theater Voluntary attendance people usually freely decide to go to the presentation Motivated by enjoyment usually looking for an outlet to provide them entertainment Models of the Audience Audience as an Aggregate o Looked upon as a whole individual behaviors don t matter much 0 Not a communication centered approach more sociological 0 Based on audience size characteristics of the audience such as behavior values etc must be taken into account may be outliers 0 Audience count is one way to interpret people s behaviors 0 Ratings are important need to know what shows are watched sites visited etc this becomes aggregated data 0 How much is being spent on audience supported media I Ex NPR needs audience funding to exist 0 Public opinion polling used to understand how specific population feels as a whole about a topic 0 Media content as a product how many people use buy an item 0 Audience activity or passivity is irrelevant whether or not they care much about the issue program just the fact that you are engaging the media is the important part 0 Examples Billboard charts for top songs Nielsen ratings for TV best selling books lists Theories of Mass Communication Week 6 Audience as a Market 0 O 0 Thought of as a commodity sold to advertisers Audience is the product not the content think propaganda theory Audience is a vehicle for sales advertisers need the audiences to make sales and profit Audience is characterized as a group of material consumers In this situation audience is viewed as somewhat active in this process advertisers play into this and pitch their products based on the programming Audience members know what they want to get out of their media experience preferences for certain content over others Audience as Mass 0 O O Dispersed group that do not know each other Mass society approach society has strong ties that bring order and meaning for individuals I Media communicates to us what we should believe and how we should behave to be a fruitful member of society Ex people who watch the same television program you might know a few people who watch it but not everyone who does Reactive not active social consciousness is constructed upon exposure we are taught how to act react to situations through media Audience members are subject to manipulation persuasion think propaganda again Audience as Active 0 Members have goals desires and will actively strive to reach these goals
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