Aug 31-Oct 9 notes
Aug 31-Oct 9 notes IHUM 201
Popular in Western Humanities 1
Popular in Arts and Humanities
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassady Harris on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IHUM 201 at Brigham Young University taught by Charlotte Stanford in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Western Humanities 1 in Arts and Humanities at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Mesopotamia Beer and bread Water transportation agriculture Linked through trade with Greece and Rome Had oral epic traditions o Gilgamesh comparative to Homer s epics Stele of Hammurabi regarding legal practices Votive statue created as a gift and represents worshiper Cult statue represents deity being worshipped Cuneiform tablets Ziggurats at Ur around 2100 BC Hierarchy scalebigger you re depicted the more important you are Development of trade routes was necessary premetallurgy because sources of copper and tin were mined in separate regions of the Middle East Akkadians Sargon was ruler Conquered Sumer much of Mesopotamia but only for about 150yrs Hammurabi Conquered akkadians Babylon s ruler Upperclass persons had less punishment than lowerclass Slaves had no legal protection at all Hebrew code treats lowest members of society as human beings Women inferior no incest father s cannot disown sons His code held for a millennium In Stee of Hammurabi Shamash the Mes Sun god is giving his blessing to Hammurabi Lineage of Mesopotamian kings Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian Babylonian Synoptic View depicts several consecutive actions as one scene Composite made up of distinct parts Anthropomorphism gods and forces of nature are endowed with humanlike traits Song of Songs love poem dealing with sexual awakening Ziggurat of Marduk NeoBabylonian legendary Tower of Babel described in Genesis Ashurnasirpal Ianna Hebrews Assyrian king Assyrians only ones left after invaders came from turkey Assyrian kings represented power through big palaces that were highly decorated and massive gateways Worshipped as goddess of fertility in heaven represented as mortal in religious literature symbolized by lions Monotheistic worship Torah consists of Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Ark of the Covenant contained 10 commandments Prophets did not engage in worshipping Canaanite fertility gods and goddesses NeoBabylonia and Persia Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar captured people of Jerusalem Ishtar Gate is constructed of glazed brick Ancient Persians practed Zoroastrianism Fluting vertical channels that exaggerate height of columns Rhyton ritual cup Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh priestking of Uruk about 2700 BC Earliest stories appear 600 years later First known literary work to confront the idea of death Oral repetition By 1200 BC definitive literary edition compiled Puns difference in speech types Epics o Royalgodly birth Physically strong and beautiful Successful in battle Goes on questkills monsters Has help often divine o Subtle influence of women Epithets Enkidu protetctor of herdsmen Metaphors similes OOOO know names Ancient EgyptContributions to European Traditions Kemet Black Landquot Balance Religion and ruling connected Old Kingdomconvential Egyptian art established Middle Kingdomliterary language produced New Kingdomtime of abundance renewing interest in art and architecture Peace amp prosperitycultural stability In Egypt floodgood mespotamiaflood was a destructive force The initial unification of upper and lower Egypt took place during the Predynastic period Palette of Narmer helped decipher other Egyptian hieroglyphs symbolized unification of upper and lower Egypt Egyptian artists painted human faces arms legs and feet in profile but human eyes and shoulders frontally because they believed this to be the most characteristic view Squares in Egyptian grid system based on the measure of one clenched fist Old Kingdom 0 Ka life force sou 0 Ba one s personality 0 Mummification was so ka and ba would not be recognized in a decomposed body 0 Stepped pyramid at Djoserfirst great pyramid o Mastaba trapezoidal tomb structure 0 Sculpture important in funerary tradition II I II Middle Kingdom 0 Cultural production of the Middle Kingdom differed from that of earlier periods in that secular literature was written 0 Hyksos introduced horsedrawn chariot which served military purposes New Kingdom 0 Pylon massive gateway with sloping walls 0 Hypostyle hall vast space filled with columns supporting a roof o Sanctuary most sacred place of a religious building 0 Obelisks square tapered stone columns topped by a pyramid shape 0 Amarna style startling realism started by Akhenaten o Hatshepsut female ruler declared king of Egypt 0 The great temple of Amun at Karnak was a metaphor for birth and creation 0 Overseer of mysteries supervised mummification where he acted as priest and surgeon 0 Books of Going Forth by Day Books of the Dead contain magical texts and spells to help the dead survive judgment The Late Period 0 Kushsouthern region of Nubia o Mentuemhet s pose similar to that of Old Kingdom Minoanscrete worshipped female deities Cycladic figurines found in graves served mortuary purpose Minoan frescoes were painted to decorate homes and palaces and ancient Egyptian frescoes were found in tombs The Palace of Minos at Knossos was organized around a central open court 0 After Ariadne helped Theseus slay the Minotaur by giving him a sword and a spindle Theseus abandoned her on the island of naxos where she married Dionysus Agamemnon of Mycenae and Menelaus of Sparta were bros Priam king of Troy steals across enemy lines late at night to beg for the body of his son 0 Agamemnon takes beautiful Briseis from Achilles 0 Democracy established in Athens by Cleisthenes Engaged columns project from a wall but serve no structural purpose 0 The bottom layer of the entablature is known as the architrave The swelling of the shaft of a Greek column is called entasis Cycladic Figurines laying downcycladic figues about 2500 BC 0 Harpist2700 BC CreteMinoan 0 Snake goddessquot about 1600 BC possible deity women prominent in the society bull venerated reconstruction of Knossos palace1450 BC Citadel of Myceanae Corbeled interior with relieving triangle over entrance lintel Mask of Agememnon Warrior vase 13001100 BC GreekArchaic Age Myceanae culture fades away Orientalizing period about 600 BC New Yorkquot Kouros Greeks had negative space between legs and arms in comparison to Egyptian18 fists tall 5 wide shoulders Big eyes almond shapedquot Votive statues anabysos kouros about 525 BCmore realistic more detailed slightly smiling smirk hallmark of archaic art kouros statues were grave markers The Odyssey Book 1 o Crying considered honoring the dead in the Odyssey Homerblind bard don t know if there was a Homer Ar te Hubns Epithets and meter make it more memorable Calypso keeps him for 7 years 0 Suitors are abusing hospitality Book 9 0 Gift giving prominent host showers gifts on guest unlike our modern practices 0 Book 23 0 Nurse sees scar on his ankle 0 Penelope in a daze hesitant to believe its him 0 She requests a bed brought out to greet Odysseus a test that he passes he knows the bed cannot be moved 0 Odysseus realizes she s been faithful because bed wasn t moved OOOOO Greek Drama 0 Women kept at home didn t mingle Only male actors Theater of Dionysus from Acropolis Athens 0 Theater at Delphi 0 Lots of hills so theaters carved into mtn good acoustics masks project voice 0 Had backdrop temple pillars Skenehouse with dressing room props Machines to wheel things forward as well as lower people in 0 Put on at public expense no admission 0 Drama festival twice a year in honor of the gods 0 Performances began at dawn 0 Competitive Tragedies in trilogiesusually linked o Followed by short satyr 0 Comedy was a separate genre 0 2 or 3 principal actors chorus of 1215 men 0 singing dancing 0 don t often show violent scenes 0 thematic features based on wellknown myths 0 Popular House of Labdacus LaiusOedipusantigone 0 House of Atreus Agamemnonorestes o Trojan war saga Helen Hecuba Rooted in religious rites o Narrative hymns to gods 0 Added speeches and acting 0 Focus on agon conflict 0 Initially 2 actors later 3 Narrate rather than performimagination more powerful Aeschylus 512 BC456 BC Traditionalist2 main actors only Oresteia only surviving trilogy Sophocles 496406 BC Oedipus the classic drama added 3rd actor 0 most traditional Euripides 480406 BC 0 Innovative challengerOfocuses on women and foreigners 0 Deus ex machine endings AristotleThe Poetics 6 important components 0 Plot Simple or complex Includes reversal and recognition Within single day 0 Character Has tragic flaw Thought Speech Melody chorus as character 0 Spectacle scenery costumes and affects 0 Audience to feel catharsis o Pity 0 Fear 0 cleansing OOO Tragedy 0 Leaves character downinvoking catharsis in audience Electra 0 Not exact form 0 She gets what she wants but isn t happy about it Wailing over corpsedirectors decisionmade it seem more tragic Chorus loves morals Orestes carries burden kills kin has avenging furies after himis he tragic hero Clytemnestra kills her husband who is NOT blood relative so it s not as bad I bore you to Orestes 0 Would want Greeks to leave play wondering Orestes first to speakusually male figure 0 Old middle aged young women for chorus experience of all women 0 TRAGIC FLAW Euripides Medea amp Jason 0 Medea and women chorus vs many men Known for her abilities with sorcery Beginning speaker hints at her atrocities First speaker a nursewomanservantslave low Medea just wishing she was dead She s killed bro Medea talks daughters into boiling uncle so they flee to Corinth Jason s going to leave herbut she s been loyal Jason and Medea have debate agon pg 779 she received more than he gave he brought her to Greece you re famous 0 She did the same for him Reversal when she starts plotting to kill wife and her own kids 765 0 She doesn t want to leave him anythingcomplete destruction Jason much more of a tragic hero Tragic flaw Narcissistic prideful vengeful doesn t want people to laugh at her Greek Philosophy Philoslove Sophiawisdom Man is the measure of all thingsProtagoras o Relativism Sophism Dialectical method Inductive reasoning Idealism Empirical investigation Syllogism o The Golden Mean Aristotle think of women as biologically imperfect men Socrates Plato finger pointing up ideals of the metaphysical world 0 He stayed principle of following the states lawstructure and drank hemlock rather than run and be exiledmartyr Aristotle 0 Into studying the natural world Plato 0 Symposium Storge Affection Phiia Philadelphiacity of brotherly love loyalty and virtue Agape selfless spiritual love Eros desire primarily sexual OOOOOO Diotemawho Socrates talked with and recorded ideas 0 Cave allegory Hellenistic Art Aiming for emotion and more realistic From alexander the Great to Rome 323 BC31 BC Copies of Lysippus portrait of Alexander the Greatquot 0 Eyes are small and closeset not idealized o Scrunched foreheadshow him worrying about his kingdom o Nose has bump on bridge not straight Lysippus scraper Roman copy of lost Greek bronze original 0 Struts to hold up statue o Longer legs smaller head 0 Tousled hair 0 Cheeks fuller thicker neck Praxiteles 0 Lost Aphrodite of Knidosquot Serene face Contraposto pose o Hermes with infant Dionysusquot 4th century BC soft expression perfect face Attalos I o More unique face cleft chin o Tries to use art and architecture to impress locals 0 Look similar to Alexander the Great so connection is made in peoples minds Bump in nose Wrinkled forehead Hair is the same Deeply set eyes Deep carving makes everything look more dramatic typical of Hellenistic period as well as clothing revealing body outline Epigonos Dying Gaulquot Hagesandros Po lydoros and Athanadoros of RhodesLacoon group Nike of Samothrace 0 Wind blowing back cloth to outline her figure Spinario o thornpuller o more of a real scene 0 The Boxer at Restquot 0 copper inlaid where he s been punched and is bleeding Classic period 0 People looked perfect Contrapposto stance 0 Focus on realism naturalism Greek ideal of beauty 0 Forehead and nose don t break 0 Archaic smile Canonhand same length as face Parthenon exception to many rules Lost Wax Casting Sprueing puts holes sto allow gases to escape and molten bronze Know basic steps 0 Make wax around sculpture 0 Make cast around wax Poor bronze in cast Parthenon Doric Centauromachy Triglyphs and metopes as well as continuous frieze Plain columns no volutes or acanthus leaves 0 20 flutes 0 has 8 columns across the front too many 0 Ictinus and Callicrates 447431 BC 0 Mixed doric and ionic features in continuous frieze Inner colonnade Golden Mean 0 Way to happiness is through pursuit of moral virtue and pursuit of good life leads to happiness good life consists of pursuit of moral virtue Doric Most simple 0 20 flutes 0 16 of height Ionic Princess lea buns eyeswirly 24 flutes thickness is 19 of height Corinthian Romans 24 flutes same as ionic except top acanthus Etruscan tumui 0 Inside looks like house benches carved Terracotta sarcophagus Sarcophagus of Seianti Hanunia Funerary urn lid married couple Apollo of Veii vs anavysos kouros o Archaic smile 0 Clothing 0 Contraposto stance used earlier Early Rome CaptoHne o Temples to Jupiter Apollo 0 Capital Palatine Aventine Patricians 0 Rich upper class descendants of upper class Plebians Veristic portraits o Realistic portrait 0 40 years old Senator payed for public services State comes first Julius Ceasar Augustus of Primaport JC s nephew 27 BC14 AD 0 Statue with breastplate iconography cupid on dolphin eagle was standard Trying to claim he s from Venus s line 0 Barefootdemigod not above people Ara Pacisaltar of peace 0 Procession around similar to pantheonic Nero 5468 AD 0 Senate still ruined 0 Burns down Rome 0 assassinated Titus 7981 AD Arch Many archesbarrel vault Crossed archgrain vault