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Notes Lecture 6

by: Keziah Notetaker

Notes Lecture 6 14407

Marketplace > Brooklyn college > Psychlogy > 14407 > Notes Lecture 6
Keziah Notetaker
Brooklyn college
GPA 3.4
Psychology 2100
Alison Barren

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About this Document

A study of The Self and its 4 Major Components, a look into the effects of emotions and motivation, and more!
Psychology 2100
Alison Barren
Class Notes
social psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.


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Date Created: 10/09/15
Why do we make Social Perception Errors cont d 3 Defensive Attributions Explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability in which people hold victims responsible internal attribution for misfortune 0 Example Belief in a Just World The assumption that people get what they deserve 4 Lack of Cognitive Capacity 0 Two stage Model of Attribution 1 Automatically see other s behavior as dispositional and make internal attributions 2 Later we adjust our interpretation to look at the situational external factors It is important to note that people who are busytired are less likely to make situational external attributions since exhaustion plays a key role in lack of cognitive capacity Lecture 6 The Self Self recognition A sense of self concept 0 Components of the Self Self Knowledge Most important component of the four Self Control Impression Management Self esteem The Mark Test A test used to determine whether a Child has developed the ability of self recognition yet The Child is placed in front of a mirror then a bit of paint is put on one of their Cheeks If they have developed self recognition they ll see the paint in the mirror and reach up to touch that area on their face with their hand If it hasn t they will just touch the mirror as if their re ection is another Child 0 Video Self Recognition in Apes httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vvJFo3trMuD8 Self recognition O Develops early 18 24 months in humans 0 Becomes more complex with age Children focus on physical features like their hair color and nose shape Adults focus on psychological statesemotions like describing their creativity in an interview Four Major Components of The Self 1 Self Knowledge Beliefs about who we are 0 How you define who you are can vary depending on culture and gender Independent mainly applicable to Western cultures Define self in terms of internal thoughts feelings and actions Interdependent mainly applicable to Asian cultures and anything besides Western Define self in terms of one s relationships to other people 0 Relational Interdependence More common in women Define self in terms of their close relationships spouse lifelong friendships O Collective Interdependence More common in men Define self in terms of memberships in larger groups Introspection Process where people look inward to examine their own thoughts feelings and motives Self Awareness Theory When people focus attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values 0 Finding a difference between behavior and values leads to either 1 Change in behavior 2 Reduction of self awareness Q The general process for self awareness is 1 Look for cues in the environment general standards to compare to 2 Analyze your State of Self Awareness 3 Look for self discrepencies between behavior and attitudes If yes you either 1 Change your behavior to match your standards 2 Reduce self awareness If no 0 There is no need to change your behavior or attitude Errors in Introspection Reasons generated attitude change An attitude change that results from thinking about the reasons of one s attitudes 0 Example Making a pro s and con s list about your school choices 0 Two rules for this 1 People assume their attitudes are based on what is easy to verbalize not those gut feelings that can t be explained 2 The hard to explain attitudes aka gut feelings eventually return Self Perception Theory Observing one s own behavior can in uence how people infer their attitudes O This is particularly true in an ambiguous situation when the circumstances aren t clearly defined 0 Example A salesperson gets trained to speak in a positive way about their product to entice more people to buy it There is this long list of negative side effects the sales person is fully aware of but needs to ignore in their pitch After a while of talking about how great the product is the salesperson is more likely to believe what they re saying and adopt that as their personal opinion despite knowing how bad the product really is Motivation Intrinsic Motivation The desire to engage in an activity because of internal enjoyment not rewards or outside pressure 0 People with intrinsic motivation report higher levels of psychological well being Extrinsic Motivation The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards not because it s interesting 0 People with extrinsic motivation report lower levels of psychological well being and negative satisfaction in life Overjustification Effect Receiving external rewards for a given behavior can undermine intrinsic motivation 0 Example Kids were split up into two groups for drawingart One group was rewarded with candy after while the other were all just told great job Later on during free time when given several options for activities the kids who were told great job were more than twice as likely to choose drawing than those who received candy Task Contingent Rewards Reward for doing any assignment or task 0 Can decrease intrinsic motivation Performance Contingent Rewards Reward only for doing well excellent performance on a task 0 Can maintain intrinsic motivation Emotion Two Factor Theory of Emotions Emotional experience is a result of a 2 step self perception process 1 Experience physiological arousal 2 Seek appropriate explanation for arousal Q It is important to note that we use cues from social situations to assist in factor 2 Misattribution of Arousal Process in which people make wrong inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do 0 Example The Science of Love Dutton and Aron 1974 httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvPOaMEkGlcQE O In the video above the men mistook their fear of the bridge for attraction to the woman interviewing them More men from the unstable bridge called the woman that night for a followup compared to the men on the stable bridge Also the stories they were asked to write included more romance on the unstable bridge than on the stable bridge where the men thought there was something wrong with the woman Social Comparison Theory We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people 0 When is this done Usually during times of uncertainty 0 Who do we compare ourselves to It depends on our goals but usually peersindividuals in the same cohort 0 Gender differences Women feel worse after seeing more attractive women imageappearance focused Men feel worse after viewing men of higher statussocial recognition sociallyfinancially focused These differences likely re ect on women knowing that men are more focused on physical appearance when viewing them while men know that women are more focused on moneyfinancial security Downward Social Comparison Comparing to people who are worse than us 0 The goal here is raising self esteem 0 Example If you get a B on a test you ll look for someone who got a C or worse Upward Social Comparison Comparing to people who are better than us 0 The goal here is self evaluation and enhancement 0 Example If you get a B on a test you ll look for someone who got an A so you can ask how they studiedwhat they did differently


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