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Astronomy Notes

by: Hannah Moore

Astronomy Notes ASTR-1020-90

Hannah Moore
Clayton State

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About this Document

Covers chapter 20, and the power point from class
Stellar and Galactic Astronomy
Dr. Campbell
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Moore on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR-1020-90 at Clayton State University taught by Dr. Campbell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Stellar and Galactic Astronomy in Science at Clayton State University.

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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 20: Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology  Island of Stars o How are the lives of galaxies connected with the history of the universe?  100 billion galaxies  Cosmology- the study of the structure of galaxies o What are the three major types of galaxies?  Spiral Galaxy  Has a disk with spiral arms, a central bulge, and a halo  Barred Spiral Galaxy: has a bar across the middle o Lenticular Galaxy  Intermediate between Elliptical and spiral galaxy  Elliptical Galaxy  Older, smaller stars  No disk, random rotation of stars  Big ball of stars, very little dust or gas  No stars forming  Irregular Galaxies  Young galaxies  Bunch of stars gravitational bound together  Blue white o How are galaxies grouped together?  They are grouped in between whether they are spiral or more disk like.  Spiral galaxies are often found in groups  Clusters of galaxies  Measuring Galactic Distances o How do we measure the distances to galaxies?  First determine the size of the solar system using radar.  Use parallax to determine distances of nearby stars  Use a standard candle (Object that we know the luminosity without knowing the distance) to measure the distance of further star clusters.  White Dwarf Supernovae, and Cepheid variables can be used as a standard candle o How did Hubble prove that galaxies lie beyond the Milky way?  Hubble uses the Cepheid variables to show that other galaxies are far away. o What is Hubble’s Law?  Galaxies are moving away from us, and they are redshifted. Faster moving away, the further away they are  Find distance using redshifts  The age of the Universe o How does Hubble’s Law tell us the age of the universe?  The expansion rate appears same everywhere  The universe had no center and no edge.  Cosmological Principle  The universe looks about the same no matter where you are in it.  Cosmological Horizon  Horizon in time not distance  We cannot see beyond the begin of the universe


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