GEOG 150: Week 3 Notes
GEOG 150: Week 3 Notes GEOG 150
Popular in Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
Popular in Geography
This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Rubenstein 6063 Monday October 5 2015 Malthus on Overpopulation What was Malthus s claim What are two characteristics of recent population growth that to Neo Malthusians make Malthus s claim even more frightening What do Malthus s critics believe Who does Malthus s theory compare with reality What are three outcomes of Japan s declining population What characterizes the possible stage 5 of the demographic transition Malthus Thomas Malthus claimed that the population was growing much more radically than Earth s food supply Contemporary NeoMalthusians Two characteristics of recent population growth make Malthus s claim even more frightening 1 relatively poor countries have the most rapid population growth gt gap between population and resources even wider than Malthus anticipated 2 world population outstripping more resources than just food including water and energy Malthus s Critics unrealistic because based on fixed supply of resources not an expanding supply some think population growth is a good thing stimulate economic growth greater demand for food more jobs more brains for innovation Malthus s Theory and Reality even though the world population has grown more rapidly than ever world food production has consistently grown faster Japan s Declining Population high percentage of elderly people shortage of workers gt encouraging more people to work older people women discourage immigration Population Futures Demographic Transition Possible Stage 5 Decline predicted for some developed countries very low CBR increasing CDR negative NIR lots of elderly people with few workingage people to support them Describe the population policies in India Describe China s population policies Monday October 5 2015 China and India India s Population Policies first country with national family planning clinics with information about birth control brith control distributed at little or no cost abortions sterilizations people received payment for getting sterilizations people thought sterilization was to become mandatory emphasized education sterilizations dominant form of birth control China s Population Policies unlike India substantial progress in reducing rate of growth One Child Policy 1980 financial subsidies long maternity leave better housing more land in rural areas for agreeing to have one child now One Child Policy more relaxed Lecture Monday October 5 2015 Overpopulation Population Policies What is the shape of a pyramid with population decline What causes decline Give an example of a country that is experiencing population decline What is the population situation in Europe How were Scandinavia and France so successful in raising the birth rate What characterizes Russia s perfect storm What is the historical background behind decreasing birth rates and increasing death rates Population Decline Low TFR or High DR pyramids with shape of contraction at the bottom gt population decline ie Japan Population will decline in 50 countries by 2050 People having less than 2 babies and no immigrants Japan High elderly population With not enough workers how is economy going to keep going Birth rate hasn t gone up even though they ve known this problem was coming because haven t put enough incentives out there Incentives maternitypaternity care free child care raising retirement age Europe empty farm villages immigrants might take care of population decline but they will bring other issues Scandinavia amp France great success with raising birth rate through maternitypaternity care incentives Russia s perfect storm very low birth rates high death rates people leaving emigrating hostilityracism toward immigrants 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed Russia took a leap backwards in terms of health after 1991 after 1991 births went down dramatically deaths went up Why did birth rates in Russia decline How and why did the government support more births What is the Russian Cross Why are death rates so high in Russia Monday October 5 2015 Birth rates People felt like their world had been ripped out from under them Job apartment health care provided for by Soviet Union Not going to have babies President Vladimir Putin earn baby bonuses for women who had second third child population decline threat to military Local governments National Family Contact Day birth rate actually has come up Russian Cross never such as big gap between brithdeath rates Death rates collapse of statesubsidized health care system under Communist system covered basic needs for free in 1980s Soviet healthcare system 22nd in the world By 2000 130th People could not afford private healthcare environmental causes polluted air soil water sacrificed environment for the economy build workrelated accidents for an industrialized country happens because of poor regulations oversight alcoholrelated illness long history of alcohol use in Russia going back 1000 years political leaders benefitting from drinking taxing alcohol paying off bar debts by joining military 7 million alcoholrelated deaths in Russia last year Vladimir Putin finally classified beer as alcohol used to be classified as food liquor stores closed for a few hours at night raised taxes on alcohol serious lack of understanding of alcoholism What does the demographic transition model say Who goes through this process Describe stage 1 of the demographic transition model Monday October 5 2015 mental illnesssuicide same reasons as alcohol smokingrelated diseases heroin before 1991 tight borders Nothing came in nothing went out after 1991 borders of Soviet Union collapsed Heroin flowed in from Afghanistan from poppies in Afghanistan to refined powder in Russia at least 25 heroin addicts in Russia sharing needles gt carrying HIV gt HIV is spreading faster growing rates of HIV in Russia than in SubSaharan Africa Russian government did nothing Addicts not getting help arrested and die from withdrawal in prison Methadone illegal in Russia methadone is a replacement drug to help wean addicts off of heroin Russia does not support needle exchange programs clean needles really important in not spreading HIV As a country industrializes and urbanizes the populations change First death rates come down Then birth rates come down Eventually population stabilizes Every single country goes through this process and is always moving forward in this process Stage1 Very high birth rate very high death rate Very slow growth NIR very close to zero Because survival is uncertainPrimitive society Today no country in Stage 1 Describe stage 2 of the demographic transition model Describe stage 3 of the demographic transition model Describe stage 4 of the demographic transition model Describe stage 5 of the demographic transition model Give examples of countries in Stages 2 3 and 4 of the demographic transition Monday October 5 2015 Stage 2 Death rate falling rapidly because of improvements in medicine and public health knowledge Rising NIR High birth rate because ruralfarming high infant mortality women not working Europe North America Australia moved into Stage 2 with the Industrial Revolution improvements in industrial technology public health sewer system cholera Latin America Africa moved into Stage 2 with the Medical Revolution medical technology arrived Stage 3 Birth rates are falling because of socialcultural changes people moving to cities lowered infant mortality apartments are small Death rates continue to fall because of medicine A lot of SubSaharan Africa has not made it to Stage 3 Stage 4 Zero population growth Where US is now Stage 5 death rates would be above birth rates only Russia is in Stage 5 immigration going to be the key for countries in Stage 5 Cape Verde in Stage 2 brought death rates down but still very high birth rates Chile in Stage 3 conservative Catholic society no access to birth control Denmark in Stage 4 What is the main question of overpopulation What were Malthus s two facts that backed his theory What was Malthus s main claim How did Malthus think we could avoid the problem What do other people think Monday October 5 2015 How many people can the planet support Thomas Malthus gt Malthusian Theory 1 All humans need food 2 Sexual activity and reproduction also necessary and constant The world s rate of population growth would overtake food production Population increases geometrically food increases arithmetically Only way to stay out of problem Lower birth rates abstinence Higher death rates epidemic Some say Paul Ehrlich it will end in chaos gt Neo Malthusians Some say we will invent our way out of any problem Knox amp Marston 97105 Monday October 5 2015 Population Debates and Policies What did Malthus beHeve Who were critics of Malthus and what did they believe What do Neo Mathlusians today beHeve What is population poHcy What has been the goal of most international population policies How do they achieve that Population and Resources Malthus the population would inevitably exhaust food suppHes proposed laws to limit human reproduction especially among poor people Critiques of Malthus Godwin Marx Engels Boserup see lecture notes Boserup agricultural intensification producers intensify production in order to maintain and adequate food supply NeoMalthusians and Others Today only strict demographic controls everywhere will solve the problem Population Policies and Programs population policy an official government strategy designed to affect any or all of several objectives including the size composition and distribution of population most international population policies have attempted to reduce the number of births worldwide International Population Policies to lower fertility rates familyplanning incentives for one child disincentives for large families legal age for marriage increasing access to healthcare and education for women more equality between men and women contraceptives economic development The UN Millennium Development Goals MDGs How do the UN MDGs cause economic development worldwide How is the progress of the MDGs reported What still needs to be done Will the world s population increase Where Will the human population grown indefinitely Why How does geography relate to human longev y Monday October 5 2015 economic development worldwide shapes population growth and quality of life for peripheral countries opens new markets for core products and services Progress of the MDGs UN publishes a yearly report outlining profess in the UN Millennium goals efforts are still required to address environmental sustainabily maternal and child health and gender based inequalities as they affect women s opportunities to shape their own lives Future Geographies World s population will increase by 12 percent annually but in places that cannot support it Bangladesh China India Indonesia Nigeria Pakistan Human population will not grow indefinitely Demographic transition theory falling fertility There is geography to human longevity Lecture Wednesday October 7 2015 Overpopulation Population Policies amp Geography of Migration What do Malthusians NeoMalthusians beHeve What do Malthusian critics Marx Engels and Boserup believe MalthusiansNeo Malthusians amp Malthusian Critics MalthusiansNeoMalthusisans population is growing too fast will run out of resources food world will end in chaotic apocalypse doom and gloom Erlich Jared Diamond we need a strict public policy to solve population problem Malthusian Critics Marx amp Engels population growth is not the problem capitalism is to blame world had enough resources but we need to distribute more fairly Esther Boserup Agricultural economist challenged Malthus s theory of food production under pressure of starvation people will get creative and find ways to increase food production inventive Population Policies India and China 1O Describe the population policies in India What was the Indian motto Sterilization Describe the history leading up to population policies in China Describe the One Child Policy What are the consequences of the One Child Policy Wednesday October 7 2015 India first country in the world to launch a national family planning program educating women about their own bodies taught women basic public health wash hands after using bathroom don t drink water from unknown sources immunize children gt brought down infant mortality rate gt had less children girls went to school Indian motto Development is the best contraceptive getting girls in school teaching women work skills Indira Gandhi practically required sterilization pressure to sterilize as many people as possible Indian government reversed China 19503 rapid industrialization took thousands of farmers off farms and moved them to cities gt not enough food production Mao Zedong skeptical of birth control gt little birth control available 1962 famine started to see that population could be a problem Late long few campaign 1979 One Child Policy targeted Han ethnic group make up more than 90 of population Could apply to have a second child if ethnic minorities lived on farm first child was disabled or a girl this law worked has prevented 250 million births prenatal and postnatal health care improved criticized for being so harsh consequences unequal sexratio due to sexdetermined abortions 421 one child has pressure to support two parents four grandparents when they get older relaxed recently 11 Wednesday October 7 2015 The Geography of Migration Why should we care We should care about migration because about migration Give 1 US is made of mostly immigrants we are all three reasons immigrants 2 Right now experiencing biggest forced migration ever 3 fundamentally geographical Democratic Republic of the Congo political migrants Who is a migrant and Who is a migrant and who is a refugee who is refugee refugee migrant forced to flee due to persecution certain protections under the UN by law refugees can t be sent home if they re going to die if they go back How many migrants are 250 million people live outside of the country there were there worldwide What born type are they most are economic migrants Describe the migration Short but lucrative migrations from poor to less poor from Haiti to the Haiti gt Dominican Republic Dominican Republic This summer government in Dominican Republic passes a law saying that all Haitians that aren t citizens most of them aren t have no rights Haitians who have lived in DR their whole lives basicay stateless Environmental migrants Will there be more or will be growing in the future because of climate less environmental change migrates in the future sea level rise places that will get hotterdrier places Why that get wetter Give two examples of Dust Bowl migrants environmental 1930s environmental migrates moving because migrants US history of a series of dust storms caused by massive droughts combined with bad farming techniques overproduction gt overworked soil Hurricane Katrina massive flooding because levee system failed evacuation nightmare many people did not evacuate 15 million people left New Orleans only half of them returned 12 Do perceptions and stereotypes of American immigrants exist What caused the riots in the suburbs of Pa s What does rapping have to do with it Wednesday October 7 2015 Perceptions and Stereotypes of American Immigrants Asians are model minority Proposition 187 make social services not available to illegal immigrants Video Paris Suburbs Build housing projects to keep all the foreigners contained and they blew up started the riots Next generation want to be considered fully French born in France their parents came from French colonies Extremely high rate of unemployment among young people Rapping is an outlet speak of politics frustrations of daily life 2005 riots took place because immigrants still weren39t feeling a part of French society A lot of exam questions about migration will be from the textbook 13 Rubenstein 7695 Wednesday October 7 2015 Migration Parts 13 What is the difference between international migration and internal migration What are two subgroups of each Where are the globally three largest flows of migrants What do these patterns reflect Describe the three main eras of US immigration What has changed in recent years in terms of US immigration patterns What has remained the same Where are Migrants Distributed international migration permanent move from one country to another voluntarymigrant s choice usually for economic improvement amp forced migration migrant compelled to move political or environmental factors internal migration permanent move within the same counvy interregional from one region in a country to another amp intraregional within one region International Migration Patterns Globally three largest flows of migrants From Asia to Europe From Asia to North America From Latin America to North America reflects the importance of migration from a developing country to a developed country US Immigration Patterns Three main eras of US immigration Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries from Europe to the colonies and SubSaharan Africa as slaves MidNineteenth to Early Twentieth Century from Europe for economic success from Ireland and Germany from Scandinavia Southern and Eastern Europe industrial revolutions there triggered rapid population increase Late Twentieth to Early TwentyFirst Century from Asia and Latin America Shift from primarily Europeans to Asian Latin American but reason the same left when their countries hit stage 2 of the demographic transition rapid population growth limited opportunities for economic advancement 14 What is the center of population How has the center of population moved over the past 200 years Describe interregional migration in Russia How was the Soviet government involved Were the Soviet government s plans successful What is the Trail of Tears Wednesday October 7 2015 Where do People Migrate with a Country Interregional Migration Migration between regions of the United States Changing center of population center of population average location of everyone in the country the center of population gravity Over the past 200 years the center has consistently shifted westward but has moved at different rates 1790 Hugging the Atlantic Coast 18001840 Crossing the Appalachians due to improved transportation ie canals 18591890 Rushing to the gold in CA 19001940 Filling in the Great Plains able to cultivate the land with agricultural technology railroads encouraged settlement 19502000 Moving south for job opportunities warmer climate continued to move west as well Interregional migration in Russia Vast majority of Russians live in the European portion of the country Soviet government forced people to migrate to the Far North because it was rich with natural resources Later Soviet officials encouraged interregional migration to the Far North by offering incentives higher wages more paid holidays shorter retirement incentives not as successful as Soviet officials wanted many people from the Far North migrated back other immigrants replaced them Trail of Tears Native Americans forced by law to migrate to Oklahoma so whites could settle in the land the Native Americans previously occupied 15 Describe the migration between regions in other large countries Canada China and Brazil List and describe the three forms of intraregional migration Where does each take place and why do people migrate What are push and pull factors What are the three major kinds of push and pull factors Wednesday October 7 2015 Migration between regions in other large countries Canada significant migration from east to west China migration from rural interior to urban areas along east coast where there are many jobs policies used to limit interregional moves restrictions now lifted Brazil government encouraged migration from Atlantic coast to the interior of the country through development of the interior moved its capital from Rio to Brasilia Intraregional Migration Three forms of intraregional within region migration Migration from rural to urban areas began with Industrial Revolution in 18003 in Europe and America recent urbanization in Asia Latin America Africa seek economic advancement declining opportunities in agriculture prospect of factory or service work in cities Migration for urban to suburban areas developed countries pulled to a suburban lifestyle Migration from urban to rural areas counterurbanization move for lifestyle reasons with modern communication and transportation no location in a developed country is truly isolated push factor induces people to move out of their current location pull factor induces people to move into a new loca on Three major kinds of push and pull factors economic political environmental Reasons for Migrating 16 Use Ravenstein s laws to sum up the reasons why people migrate What is the main economic push and pull factor What are prominent destinations for economic migrants How are economic migrants treated Describe Europe s migrants workers Describe Asia s migrant workers Wednesday October 7 2015 Reasons for Migrating most people migrate for economic reasons political and environmental factors also play role Political push and pull factors refugees as a result of political conflict Environmental push and pull factors attractive environments mountains seaside warm climates too much or too little water either waterrelated disasters floodplain or drought Migrating to Find Work Economic push and pull factors jobs United States and Canada prominent destinations economic migrants treated differently than refugees Europe s Migrant Workers immigrants take lowstatus and lowskill jobs good for Europe migrants make far more than they would at home migrants send money back to relatives good for poorer countries stimulate economy and reduces unemployment problems guest worker program immigrants from poorer countries allowed to immigrate temporarily to obtain jobs most became citizens and remained permanently Asia s migrant workers China 40 million Chinese currently live in other countries China s booming economy now attracting immigrants from neighboring countries especially Vietnamese Southwest Asia wealthy oilproducing countries in Southwest Asia have been major destinations for people from poorer countries 17 Knox amp Marston 8697 Wednesday October 7 2015 Population Movement and Migration What is mobility What is the difference between emigration and immigration Why do most people migrate Why do governments keep track of migration numbers and rates What are two calculations of migration rates Mobility and Migration mobility the capacity of an individual or a population to move emigration moving out immigration moving in Why migrate desire for economic betterment or escape from adverse political conditions war oppression governments are concerned about keeping track of migration numbers and rates and the characteristics of migrant populations because these factors can impact political economic and cultural conditions of national regional and local levels gross migration total number of migrants moving in and out net migration gain or loss in the total population as a result of migration 18 What is the difference between push and pull factors What impacts the decision to migrate What are the two types of migration The decision to migrate is often What are the most common reasons for migrants to flee What is the difference between refugees and internally displaced persons What is the main cause of internal displacement Compare IDPs to refugees Give examples of countries with IDPs What is a second force of displacement What causes international voluntary migration Give two examples of countries and their migration laws Wednesday October 7 2015 push factors impel people to leave pull factors attract people to move to a particular location combination of push and pull factors voluntary migration individual chooses to move forces migration push factors force migration to occur against an individual s will mixed reflecting both forced and voluntary factors war famine often warinduced lifethreatening environmental degradation or disaster government coercion or oppress refugees crosses national boundary to seek safety and asylum internally displaced persons uprooted within boundaries of their own country because of conflict or human rights abuse Internal Displacement War and Conflict more than double the number of internal conflict induces IDPs than global refugees worse than refugees because they do not get protection or provision from the government international community does not have resources to help Syria civil war Colombia guerrillas target civilians Democratic Republic of Congo violence Middle EastNorth Africa Arab Spring uprisings led to government retaliation Disaster and ClimateInduces Displacement natural disaster environmental degradation environmental conflict International Voluntary Migration move because of high wage differentials better job experience opportunities family links abroad local underemploymentunemployment US more willing than other countries to accept migrants but regulated by strict laws and quotas Japan strict immigration laws but now loosening to allow foreign professionals to make up for gaps in workforce due to declining population 19 How does labor migration impact the global economy What are guest workers What kind of benefits and difficulties to they have What is an undocumented worker What are transitional migrants What does an amenity migrant seek Amenity migration is popular among what group Give examples of populations that have expe enced international forced migration Wednesday October 7 2015 Labor Migration important part of the global economy in peripheral and semi peripheral countries lessens local unemployment workers send money to their families bak at home core countries supports the dominance of the core in global economic activities guest workers laborers given temporary visas to work for limited periods of time benefits working abroad instead of at home may include higher salary possible better working condition difficulties of working abroad estrangement from parents legislation that only protects citizens undocumented workers arrive in the country without official entry visas considered illegal by the government welcomed in Baltimore Maryland very strict laws against undocumented workers in Arizona transitional migrants have homes andor work in more than one country migrant seeks cultural environmental or social benefits popular among American baby boom retirees move where health care excellent living costs low Synans Lebanese and Kurds war and civil strife Jew from Germany and Eastern Europe between WWI and WWII Armenians from Ottoman Empire after WWI Palestinians from homeland since establishment of Israel Largest movement of migrants since WWII resulting from uprising against dictatorships that started in Tunisia 20 Describe the three waves of internal migration in the US that occurred over the past two centuries Give examples of populations that have experienced internal forced migration Wednesday October 7 2015 First Wave colonization through 20th century Two parts Westward expansion and ruraltourban migration with industrialization Second Wave 19403 to 19703 massive and rapid movement of African Americans to from rural South to cities in South North and West due to mechanization of cotton picking Third Wave after WWII to present move to Sunbelt Southern CA to NC and south because of pull of economic opportunity Internal Forced Migration Trail of Tears Cherokee forced to leave homelands in Georgia and move to Oklahoma Native Americans were an obstacle to economic expansion which depended on geographic expansion Alaskans forced to migrate because of climate change China relocated citizens to rural communes to enforce Chine Communism ease pressures of high urban unemployment South Africa 21
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