CHE140 Lecture Notes 10.5 - 10.9
CHE140 Lecture Notes 10.5 - 10.9 CHE140
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE140 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Chris Hamaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
CHE140 Lecture Notes 10515 10915 10515 Lecture 1 If light has particle properties photons can particles objects have wave properties 7 hCE E mcz Substitute me2 for E 7 hcmc2 The C s cancel out 7 hmc c is the speed of light V is the speed of an object c and V are interchangeable hmv What is the deBroglie wavelength of a 95mph fastball 95mph 4247 ms Mass 145g 0145kg h 6626 X 103934 Js 11 lkgm2s2 h 6626 X 103934 kgm2s substitute kgm2s2 for J one of the s s will cancel out 6626 X 103934 01454247 Highlighted items cancel out leaving m on top to equal 108 X 103934 m 108 X 103925 nm Visible light is in nm 7 hmv Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle We cannot know exactly the speed and position of an electron o For example we know the speed of a car as it is driving but not the exact location Quantum Numbers and Electron Spin Schrodinger Equation 0 Each electron has its own wave function w which defines energy levels 1 2 is a probability function 0 It defines an orbital an area where you re most likely to find an electron 0 Has 3 unique integer values called quantum numbers Principal Quantum Number 11 Same as Bohr s n Orbitals of the same nvalue are in the same shell 11 defines a shell The larger the n the farther away from the nucleus meaning a larger orbital Angular Momentum Quantum Number 1 o Integer value from 0 nl o Defines a subshell n and l 1 Letter subshell Magnetic Quantum Number m1 0 Defined by l with integer values of l to l 0 Describes its orientation in space of the orbital which direction does it point 0 The number of orbitals in a shell is equal to 21 1 o The number of orbitals is equal to n2 n 1 m1 Notation Orbitals 1 0 0 ls 1 2 0 0 2s 4 1 101 2p 4 3 O 0 3s 9 1 101 3p 9 2 21012 3d 9 4 0 0 4s 16 1 101 4p 16 2 21012 4d 16 3 3210123 4f 16 10715 Lecture 4th Quantum Number ms 0 Spin magnetic quantum number Ins 12 0 No two electrons in an atom can have the same two sets of quantum numbers 0 n 1 m1 9 describe an orbital o 2 electrons per orbital o n 1 m1 mS 9 describe a specific electron Shapes and Sizes of Orbitals 0 See httpwintergroupshefacukorbitron Electron Configuration 0 Placing electrons into orbitals o 2 electrons per orbital 0 Fill from lowest energy to highest energy Hydrogen le 9 H r Helium 2e 9 He 1s2 Boron 5e 9 B 1s22s22p1 Neon 10e 9 Ne 1s22s22p6 Electron fill order 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p Sulfur 16e S 1s22s22p6 0 Core electrons 10915 Lecture Abbreviated Noble Gas Core Electron Configurations Vanadium 23 V 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2 o Argon s configuration V Ar4s23d2 V Ar3d24s2 Valence Electrons 0 The outermost largest n electrons o For elements in groups 1 2 1318 only main group elements Ge 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p2 Ge Ar4s23d104p2 Ge Ar3d10 Be He2s2 Mg Ne3s2 Ca Ar4s2 0 Groups have the same number of valence electrons Orbital Diagrams 0 Fill orbitals using Hund s Rule 0 Maximize spin 0 Place an electron in each degenerate before pairing Tl Tl TllTllTl Tl TllTllTl TllTllTllTllTl 13 25 35 4s 55 Tl TllTilTl Tiltlltlltllti Ti TllTlITl TllTllTllTilTllTllTl TllTllTllTllTl Tl TllTllTl 65 o Exceptions o Chromium 9 Cr Ar4s13d5 39339quot I 0 Copper 9 Cu Ar4s13d10 I ll IL IHIII 4s 33921 m Sr Kr5s2 Sr2z Kr 0 Lost two valence electrons Rb Kr5s1 Rbz Kr 0 Lost one valence electron 0 the same electron configuration Br Ar13d104s24p5 Br39 Ar3d104s24p6 Kr 0 Br gained one electron therefore it has the same electron configuration as Kr Transition metals lose their s electrons first to form cations Mn Ar4s23d5 Mn2z Ar3d5