BSC197 Lecture Notes 10.5.15
BSC197 Lecture Notes 10.5.15 BSC197
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
BSC197 Lecture Notes 1052015 Transition 0 Once Pyruvate enters Mitochondrion it is converted to Acetyl CoA and C02 0 input is the starting molecule for the Krebs cycle Krebs cycle all carbon is used up before the middle of the cycle 0 Completes the oxidation of organic molecules 0 Takes place in matrix of mitochondria 0 Cyclic like Calvin Cycle 0 Produces 1 ATP for each acetyl CoA o 2 per glucose Many high energy electrons are saved as 3NADH and FADH2 per cycle 0 Also produces 2 C02 molecules per cycle 0 Storage of a lot of high energy electrons Transition 2 0 NADH and FADH2 are used in the electron transport chain 0 Happens in cristae of mitochondrion 0 Uses oxygen as ultimate electron acceptor Electron Transport Chain 0 Takes place in the cristae of mitochondrion 0 Electron acceptors are embedded in the cristae 0 Begins with electron from NADH o Reduces avoprotein 0 Electron is passed to the other molecules that have higher electronegativity I Reduces new acceptor and donor is oxidated 0 Electron ultimately is accepted by 02 molecule 0 Very high electronegativity o For every 2 NADH molecules 02 is reduced to 2H20 Each new acceptor requires that the electron be at a slightly lower energy state Energy is siphoned off of the electrons in small increments The energy is used by the acceptor molecules to change conformation All are proteins except Q ubiquinone is lipid Oxygen is the ultimate electron acceptor Closeup of Cristae 0 Many electron acceptors used released energy to pump an H proton into the intermembrane space 0 Gradient of H is formed outside of cristaes 0 Active transport Oxidative Phosphorylation 0 ATP is actually synthesized by enzyme ATP synthase enzyme that produces ATP 0 Many copies embedded in cristae 0 Hydrogen gradient needs to reach equilibrium 0 H can only pass through ATP synthase molecule 0 Passage of H turns molecule like a water wheel 0 ATP is generated by enzyme action Net ATP Production 0 Glycolysis 2 ATP Krebs 2 ATP Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation 26 ATP 0 Total of 30 ATP glucose Fermentation 0 Used when oxygen is not available as electron acceptor 0 Not as efficient as oxidative phosphorylation o In humans only 2 ATP are produced by fermentation o Accumulation of waste molecules 0 Sometimes can be used later as energy source I Type of fermentation is known by waste product Types of Fermentation 0 Alcohol fermentation 0 Results in ethanol production 0 Performed by bacteria and fungi 0 Lactic Acid fermentation 0 Used by animals 0 Results in lactate formation 0 Causes muscles to ache after workout o Anaerobic conditions Why Fermentation o Pyruvate is dividing point of two systems 0 If 02 is available pyruvate enters mitochondrion o If 02 level is low pyruvate stays in the cytosol and undergoes fermentation Macromolecules and Respiration 0 Many types of macromolecules can be used as a source for respiration o Fats and proteins are important 0 They enter pathway at various points Regulation of Respiration 0 Very complex regulation 0 Feedback inhibition of ATP or citrate can stop early stages of reactions 0 Allows cells to produce ATP when needed