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This 61 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Liu on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Jaqueline Pickrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
June 23ml 2015 Textbook Options oz You get a card at the University Bookstore that s called a ConnectCard oz Connect provides access to assignments eBook SmartBook and more gt Smartbook adaptive questions will pop up oz Psychology Perspectives and Connections 3rd Edition 393 Where to buy gt From Bookstore or gt Online from McGrawHill s website looseleaf version of the book is 15 and is shipped to you Class Setun oz 3 Exams gt Exams are the rst thing in class about 45 55 minutes long then lecture gt First is July 14th gt Second is Thursday August 6th gt Final exam is Thursday August 20th and its comprehensive Emphasize material after the second exam but most will build especially terms Quick mechanics questions go to the TAs Intro account Special circumstances go to Professor 260 points can be earned in the class 130 points are from exams and 130 points are from homeworkreadings in the textbook First homework end of next week Extra credit take part in psychology studies Brianna in Guthrie Hall room 232 gt Subject pool program developed by the psychology department Just google it UW psychology subject pool Pool opens June 24th gt Earn based on hours or participation every hour is 1 credit hour of participation Earn up to 6 hours 03 GPA credits gt User ID Net ID they ll email you a temporary password 0 O O 90 90 90 O O 90 90 Introduction into Psychology 0 Psychology the scienti c study of behavior and the mind gt Behavior directly observable actions and responses gt Mind inferring whats happening from what we can observe and measure TVpes of Psvcholoqv oz Clinical psychology study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive psychology study of mental processes Biopsychology biological underpinnings of behavior gt quotwhat s the genetic componentquot Developmental psychology humans physical psychological and social development across a lifespan Experimental psychology studying lots of processes as well and doing that by conducting research usually in a lab Industrial organizational psychology studying people s behavior in the workplace gt They re often hired to study the best way to increase production Personality psychology human personalities traits describing people s personalities and guring out where that came from Social psychology studies people s thoughts behaviors etc especially when alone versus in a group Psychology s Scienti c Approach 0 90 O 9 Empirical evidence evidence gained through experience and observation gt Observations must be systematic Pitfalls of everyday approaches gt Mental shortcuts we don t always calculate out the nal solution step by step gt lllusory correlations things we think are related but aren t gt Failure to consider alternative explanations gt Con rmation bias we only look for evidence to support the way we feel Critical Thinking taking an active role in understanding the world gt Analyze the meaning of the information and asking how that information ts with your experience and what you know gt Thinking about the implications of this information and the validity of the information that s many times presented as fact Questions to ask gt What is the claim Who is making the claim What is the evidence and how good is it Are other explanations possible What is the most appropriate conclusion to draw Goals of psychology gt To describe how people behave how they feel etc gt To explain why they re acting the way they do gt To control by testing it gt To apply the results back to the real world to enhance human welfare TVpes of Resea rch O 90 O 90 Basic research knowledge for its own sake gt How and why people behave think and feel the way they do Applied research solves speci c practical problems gt Le in New York there was a plane crash and there were 27 different eyewitness accounts psychologists gured out that all 27 were correct Levels of Analysis 0 90 O 90 O 9 Biological level behaviors and their causes Psychological level thoughts feelings and motives Environmental level physical and social environments 393 What s more important in your development as a person Nature vs Nurture Debate biology or environment gt Answer has varied greatly in the past but modern theories suggest a balanced interaction History of Psychology Psychology s Intellectual Roots can be found in the MindBody Problem gt MindBody Dualists believe that the mind is a spiritual entity and it is not subject to physical laws This inspired a lot of religions with the idea of an afterlife where the mind can move on without the body gt Monists believe that mind and body are the same mind is not spiritually separate from the body British Empiricists believed that ideas and knowledge are gained through the senses gt This lead to advances in physiology and medicine Phrenology was when they thought they could identify people s traitspersonalities by the physical bumpsshape of your head gt Heart of Darkness people of particular races are thus quotinferiorquot because they have a different head shape Mindbody interactions relationship between mental processes and the functioning of other bodily systems gt Le thinking about your favorite food and then starting to have hunger pangs Early schools structuralism the analysis of basic elements gt First experimental psychology laboratory was established in 1879 in Germany by Wilhelm Wundt This is oftentimes when people believe psychology became a science They used introspection they would ask quotwhat do you feel What are you experiencing What do you seequot basically a running commentary Early schools functionalism the functions of consciousness gt William James championed the school of thought called functionalism which focused on quothowquot and why gt In modern day elds it is now cognitive and evolutionary psychology Six Different Perspectives Psychodynamic Perspective oz Simple facts gt It looks at the causes of behavior within the inner workings of our personality and it emphasizes the rule of unconscious processes gt It believes that causes of behavior are internal and unconscious gt It s incredibly controversial oz This was developed by Sigmund Freud 1856 1939 gt He believes that everyone is born with sexual and aggressive drives which cause us anxietypain because it s not socially acceptable We then use defense mechanisms in order to cope 393 De nitions gt Psychoanalysis there are internal and unconscious psychological forces gt Defense Mechanisms there are psychological techniques that help us cope with anxiety and pain Repression is our primary defense mechanism but there s more such as denial oz Modern psychodynamic theory gt Downplays the importance of sexual and aggressive motives instead focuses on how unconscious processes affect behavior They ll often ask about early relationships with caregivers Behavioral Perspective oz Simple facts gt It believes that the external environment governs our actions gt We are a blank slate when we are born v Behaviorism emphasizes the environmental control of behavior through learning gt Believes that only observable behavior should be studied gt Behavior is determined by Prior learning experiences Stimuli in current environment v Behavior modi cation decreasing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors by manipulating environmental factors v Modern day behaviorism is cognitive behaviorism gt Cognitive behaviorism learning experiences and the environment in uence our thoughts our thoughts in uence how we behave Humanistic Perspective oz Simple Facts gt They believe in free will personal growth 393 Selfactualization the inborn motive to reach one s full potential oz Modern day version is positive psychology gt Positive Psychology a movement within psychology that emphasizes the study of human strengths ful llment and optimal living Cognitive Perspective oz Basic facts gt It studies the nature of the mind how mental processes in uence behavior gt Originated from structuralism functionalism and gestalt psychology Gestalt psychology how elements of experience are organized into wholes gt In the 19505 there was a shift to a renewed interest in the mind Because of WWII there was involvement designing information displays during WWII ie how do pilots see the displays before them Acquisition of language Piaget s theory on childhood thought 393 Modern cognitive perspective emphasizes reasoning decision making perceptions language problem solving etc gt Cognitive neuroscience electrical recording and brain imaging techniques that examines brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks Sociocultural Perspective oz Basic Facts gt It looks at explaining human behavior through the lens of how the social environ and cultural learning in uence our behavior thoughts and feelings like social psychology Culture values beliefs behaviors and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and are passed from one gen to the next Norms rules for acceptable behavior within a group Socialization transmission and internalization of culture oz Cultural Psychology an aspect of social psychology explores how culture is transmitted and examines similaritiesdifferences among diverse cultures There are 2 main types of cultures gt Individualism personal goals and selfidentity based on one s own attributes and achievements America gt Collectivism individual goals are subordinated to those of the group Personal identity is de ned by extended family and other social groups China Biological Perspective oz Basic summaryfacts gt It examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior like behavioral neuroscience physiological functions that underlie behavior sensory experiences emotions and thoughts Large part is research on neurotransmitters chemicals that allow nerve cells to communicate with one another oz Behavior genetics how behavioral tendencies are in uenced by genetic factors oz Evolutionary psychology how evolution shaped modern human behavior Integrating the Perspectives Using all 6 lenses to examine situations Biological level brain functioning and hormones Psychological level thinking memory attention desires values personality characteristics conscious and unconscious in uences oz Environmental level stimuli in immediate physical and social environment previous life experiences cultural norms and socialization processes 9 9 O o 9 O o 9 0 June 25th 2015 Ethics in Psychological Research oz Ethics A set of standards that govern the conduct of a person or members of a profession 0 Psychologists have ethics they are obligated to gt treat human participants with respect and in a way that maintains their rightsdignity gt care for the welfare of animal subjects gt be honest in the treatment of data oz Institutional Review Board gt Every Institution has a review board where researchers must present their case and then a panel of community members make the decision as to whether or not its ethical History 393 Nuremburg Trials involving the Nazi doctors gt There were medical experiments at concentration camps mainly on the Jews that involved Malaria mustard gas sterilization head injuries organnerve transplants freezing experiments oz Tskegee Alabama or quotBad Bloodquot gt 400 600 poor African American men were diagnosed and left untreated to study syphilis They were never told they had syphilis and left untreated They were just told they had quotbad bloodquot which is why they should return to the health department and have blood tests Compensation was free transportation lunch on the day of the testing and assured that their loves ones would have burial plots gt This went on until 1972 even after the discovery of penicillin US Health Department stopped the army from treating these men who signed up to ght in WWII APA Code of Ethics 1953 393 Most recent revision was in 2010 393 5 general principles gt Bene cence and Nonmalfeasance psychologists must weigh the bene ts and the costs of research Minimize harm maximizing bene ts and preventing psychologicalphysical injuries gt Fidelity and responsibility responsibility to society gt Integrity be honest in all aspects of your research gt Justice treat everyone in research with fairness and reduce any form of bias gt Respect for people s rights and dignity give participants informed consent and let them make a fully informed decision Understanding Behaviorx oz Hindsight reasoning after a conclusion has been drawn gt Limitation past events can be explained in multiple ways gt Strength provides ideas for further scienti c study Empiricism How to know things as a Psychologist oz Empiricism generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events gt Advantages Observable info is publicly veri able by others It s the basis for science gt Disadvantages Not all phenomenon are directly observable Understanding observations still requires interpretation which is subject to bias gt Must distinguish empiricism from dogmatism the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions v Method a set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid the illusions mistakes and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce oz People are especially dif cult to study for 3 reasons gt We are complex complexity gt We are variable gt We are reactive if you know you are being watched you may behave differently Scienti c Method oz Go and copypaste the lecture diagram quotScienti c methodquot Steps 1 Theories are formed based on repeated observations of behavior a These theories must be testable and they can be used to understand and predict behavior b Theory a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomena occurs usually in the form of a statement about the casual relationship between two or more properties c Theories are never quotprovenquot but they are supported by data because there s always something in the future we don t know yet that could disprove it 2 A Hypothesis is required to test a theory a Hypothesis a speci c and testable prediction that is usually derived from a theory i These are empirical questions which means that question can be answered through empiricism aka observation ii It s a testable prediction that can be falsi ed iii Once tested a theory can be supported rejected or revised b Operational de nition de nes the property to measure in concrete terms i This is really dif cult to do for psychological properties ie measuring how much happiness 3 Hypothesis is tested through one of many research methods ie descriptive correlational and experimental a Descriptive research how humans and other animals behave in natural settings Popular forms of descriptive research i naturalistic observation watching behavior in real world settings ii case study designs of an individual group or event you focus on that one group one individual one event 1 Characteristics include depth is traded for breadth its common with rare types of brain damage its helpful in providing existence proofs but can be misleading and anecdotal 2 Downsides can t determine cause effect relationship since its so speci c dif cult to generalize bc its just a speci c eventgroupindividual lack of objectivity in gatheringinterpreting data seeing things that I want to see because the case is so interesting iii Survey research obtained through questionnaires or interviews 1 Population all of the ppl we are interested in drawing a conclusion about 2 Sample a subset of individuals drawn from the population b Correlational research the co relationship or pattern of covariation between 2 variables each of which has been measured several times i Variable a property whose value can vary or change ii Correlational designs are where a researcher measures 2 variables and then determines whether x and y are correlated iii Pearson s r helps us determine the Directionality positive or negative correlation and the Magnitude 1 to 1 iv Third variable problem variables that are casuay related are correlated but not all variables that are correlated are casuay related bc there could be a third variable v Strengths can hint at possible causal relations often based on real world data allows for prediction vi Weaknesses cannot draw cear causa conclusions c Experimental research determines causation which is how one variable affects another by comparing randomly assigned groups caed experimental groups and control groups The independent variable is what the experimenter manipulates i Confounds any difference between the experimental and control groups other than the independent variable which will make the independent variable effects uninterpretable 4 after testing the results are analyzed with statistics and reported 5 Reevaluate and re ne the original theory a New questions would be asked and new hypotheses tested Downfalls o3 Experimenter expectancy effect phenomenon in which researchers hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias a study outcome 0 Nocebo effect harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm the opposite of the placebo effect gt That s why people must be blind they can t know what group they re in experimental or control 393 Demand characteristics cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher s hypotheses It can cause ppl to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave 10 gt Solution is the double blind observation researcher and participant both don t know the true purpose Terms 393 Descriptive statistics numerical characteristics of the nature of the data set such as gt Central tendency where the group tends to cluster mean median or mode gt Dispersion sense of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are range standard deviation 393 lnferential statistics mathematical methods that allows us to determine whether we can generalize nding from our sample to the population gt Statistical signi cance nding would have occurred by chance less than 1 in 20 times June 25th 2015 Brain 101 oz Frontal lobe 393 Temporal lobe hearing Sensation vs Perception oz Sensation a stimulusdetection process gt Our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain oz Perception making sense of what our senses tell us gt It happens in the cerebral cortex brain and its an active process of organizing the stimulus output and giving it meaning oz Sensory systems are designed to extract the info we need to function and survive o3 Transduction converting the characteristics of a stimulus into nerve impulses oz Psychophysics studies relations between the physical characteristics of stimuli and sensory capabilities gt Absolute limits of sensitivity gt Differences between stimuli oz Absolute threshold the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50 of the time 393 Decision Criterion how certain a person must be that a stimulus is present before they will say they detect it Depends on gt Fatigue expectation signi cance of the stimulus etc 393 Difference Threshold smallest difference between 2 stimuli that people can perceive 50 of the time 11 gt Weber s Law difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the comparison stimulus with which the comparison is being made 393 Sensory adaptation diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus gt It allows our senses to pick up changes in the environment that could be important to our survival Vision Sensory o3 Brightness intensity of the light amplitude gt Smaller the amplitude duller the colors 0 Hue color length of wavelength gt Short wavelengths are more blueish in color quot395 L Retina Elin spot oz How the eye works gt lris opening that modi es the amount of light permitted through the pupil gt Cornea refracts light to focus it on the back of the eye gt Lens changes the curvature to refract light onto the back of the eye this process is called accommodation gt Shape of the eye affects how much the lens must bend light to focus it gt Retina membrane at the back of the eye Fovea center of the retina that is responsible for acuity gt Receptor cells contain photopigments that change on exposure to light Rods low levels of light Cones high acuity and color vision Process 12 Neural signals from photoreceptors l retinal ganglion cells l optic nerve l optic chiasm l thalamus which decides where the signals are going to the brain Trichromatic Theory cones are most sensitive to wavelengths corresponding to blue green and red gt However this doesn t explain yellow Opponent process theory three types of cones respond to two wavelengths instead of 1 each one to redgreen one to blackwhite one to blueyellow Dual process theory combines trichromatic and opponent process gt Believes that cones are most sensitive to blue green and red But the opponent processes begin in ganglion cells and beyond not the cones Feature detectors cells within the primary visual cortex that re selectively in response to visual stimuli that have speci c characteristics Perception Two types gt Bottom up processing individual elements of the stimulus are combined into a uni ed perception gt Top down processing sensory information is interpreted in light of existing knowledge concepts ideas and expectations Stimulus characteristics that affect attention intensity novelty movement contrast repetition Organization and structure of objects gt Gestalt principles argues that the whole is more than the sum of its parts Law of similarity similar elements will be perceived as belonging together Law of proximity elements that are near each other are likely to be perceived as part of the same con guration gt Figure ground relations the organization of stimuli into a foreground gure and a background Perceptual schema a mental representation containing the distinctive features of a person object event or other perceptual phenomenon gt This allows us to identify and classify sensory input Perceptual constancies allows us to recognize familiar stimuli under varying conditions Monocular depth cues cues which require only one eye gt Motion parallax if we are moving nearby objects appear to move faster than faraway ones Stroboscopic movement illusory movement produced when a light is brie y ashed in darkness and then a few milliseconds later another light is ashed nearby Illusions compelling but incorrect perceptions 13 gt Most can be attributed to perceptual constancies that ordinarily help us perceive more accurately July 2ml 2015 Chapter 3 History of Studying the Brain 0 90 Flourens 1794 1867 gt Emphasized the importance of experimental research of the brain gt Carefully controlled experiments on animals to determine localities of brain and their functions gt Moved the eld of brain research into a more scienti c arena Biological Psychology O 90 O 90 Nervous system an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body Neuron cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform informationprocessing tasks The 3 main parts of a neuron include the cell body aka soma dendrites receive messages from other neurons axons sending messages to other neurons The myelin sheath protects the axon and synapse is the space between 2 neurons There are 3 types of neurons sensory motor and interneurons gt Sensory carry the messages from the sense organs to the spinal cord of our brain gt Motor transmit impulses from the brain to the muscles gt lnterneurons they link the motor neurons and the sensory neurons Glial cells cells that form the myelin sheath and form a blood brain barrier to protect the brain They also respond to injury and remove debris How Neurons Communicate Phase 1 of Neural Communication 0 90 O 90 3 steps in the activation of nerve impulses gt Neuron has an electric resting potential which is the charge difference between the inside and outside of the axon when a neuron is not active gt Action potential a surge in positive charge occurs when a neuron is stimulated gt Original ionic balance is restored Refractory period While the neutron is returning to its resting state it temporarily becomes supernegatively charged During this time the neuron can t generate another action potential Phase 2 of Neural Communication 14 oz Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft to pass on the impulse to other neurons Neurotransmitters are packaged in sacs called synaptic vesicles in the terminal button gt Inhibitory neurotransmitters prevent the action potential in the receiving neuron from ring gt Excitatory neurotransmitters create graded potentials that increase the likelihood of the receiving neuron ring an action potential v Action potential l terminal button l vesicles fuse with the cell membrane of the terminal l neurotransmitters molecules are released into the synaptic cleft gt Graded potential small change in membrane potential that by themselves are insuf cient to trigger an action potential They determine whether or not the receiving neuron will re an action potential v However not all neurotransmitters that are released into the synaptic cleft bind with receptors so there s 2 ways of removing them gt Enzymatic degradation enzymes speci c to that neurotransmitter bind with it and destroy it gt Reuptake excess neurotransmitters are returned to the sending neuron for storage in vesicles and future use Different TypesParts of the Nervous System oz Central Nervous System CNS includes the brain and spinal cord 393 Peripheral Nervous System all of the other nerve cells in the body including the gt Somatic Nervous System transmits sensory information to the brain and spinal cord and from the brain and spinal cord to the skeletal muscles gt Autonomic Nervous System ANS serves the involuntary systems of the body such as the internal organs and glands It has 2 main branches Sympathetic nervous system responsible for the ghtor ight response activating bodily systems in times of emergency by increasing heart rate dilating pupils etc Parasympathetic nervous system opposite of the sympathetic it relaxes you oz Brocosia Aphasia ppl with this disease have dif culty producing speech 393 Wernicke s aphasia trouble with understanding The Brain Hindbrain oz Hindbrain lt s directly connected to the spinal cord and is the oldest region of the brains lt regulates breathing heart rate arousal and other basic functions of survival There are three main parts 15 gt Medulla regulates breathing heart rate and blood pressure Also involved in various re exes like sneezing swallowing etc gt Pons serves as the bridge between lower brain regions and higher midbrain and forebrain activity ie info about body movement is relayed from the cortex via the pons to the cerebullum gt Cerebullum contains more neurons than any other part of the brain and is responsible for body movement balance coordination and ne motor skills Midbrain oz Midbrain smallest of the 3 major areas and responsible for eye muscles processing auditory info initiate voluntary movement of the body etc 393 Reticular Formation a network of nerve bers that runs up through both the hindbrain and the midbrain it s crucial to waking up and falling asleep Forebrain o3 Forebrain largest part of the brain that controls cognitive sensory motor functions etc Most forebrains structure are bilateral meaning there s 2 of them one on each side of the brain oz Thalamus forebrain structure that receives input from ears eyes skin or taste buds o3 Limbic system structure in the middle of the brain directly around the thalamus that s important in emotion and motivation 0 Hypothalamus regulates all our drives ie sex hunger thirst Brain Plasticity o3 Neuroplasticity the brain s ability to adopt new functions reorganize itself or make new neural connections throughout life as a function of expenence Neurogenesis process of developing new neurons Arborization the growth and formation of new dendrites Synaptogenesis the formation of entirely new synapses or connections with other neurons 0 O O 90 90 90 Endocrine System oz Endocrine system the system of glands that secrete and regulate hormones in the body gt Hormones chemicals secreted by glands that travel in the bloodstream and carry messages to tissues and organs all over the body oz Pituitary gland the master endocrine gland of the body controls the release of hormones from glands throughout the body July 7th 2015 Chapter 6 16 Midterm 1 oz 40 multiple choice questions NEED A SCANTRON Pencil good eraser 393 Go to the review session with questions oz She likes concept questions not a lot of de nitional type questions Usually applied so you need to know the de nitions and know what that d look like in real life Overview LDevelopmental psychology examines biological physical psychological and behavioral changes that occur as we age Four Broad Issues 1 Nature and Nurture to what extent is our development the product of heredity and environment How do nature and nurture interact 2 Critical and sensitive periods a Critical period certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally b Sensitive period an optimal range for certain experiences 3 Continuity vs Discontinuity a Whether or not growth physical cognitive or social is continuous slow and gradual or discontinuous qualitatively distinct stages like stairsteps 4 Stability vs change do our characteristics remain consistent as we age Methods of Studying 1 Cross sectional design compares people of different ages at the same point in time For example they d study 100 children at age 10 100 teenagers then 100 young adults then 100 middle aged adults then 100 elderly people All of these age groups would take the study at the same time a Problem different experiences 2 Longitudinal design repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older a However problems include that its extremely timeconsuming and people may drop out of the study over time Prenatal Development conception Fl birth Stages 0 Gender is determined at the moment of conception XX female and XY male gt Y chromosome contains TDF Testis Determining Factor gene lt initiates male sexual development 17 1 Germinal stage rst 2 weeks after conception where repeated cell division is occurred 10 14 days after conception the egg attaches to the mother s uterus a Zygote fertilized egg 2 Embryonic stage embryo develops during weeks 2 8 bodily organs and systems begin to form a Placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother to the umbilical cord b Umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carry nutrients oxygen and waste between embryo and mother 3 Fetal stage week 9 to birth where the muscles strengthen bodily systems develop a Age of viability age at which a fetus is capable of survival outside of the womb currently 24 weeks but there have been excep ons Environmental In uences v Teratogens external agents that cause abnormal prenatal development such as Rubella German measles STDs environmental toxins drugs nicotine alcohol gt Fetal alcohol syndrome facial abnormalities malformed brains mental retardation irritability impulsivity attentional de cits perceptual de cits etc Threshold level of alcohol exposure is unknown Newborn oz Sensory capabilities gt Very nearsighted immature visual system gt Preferential looking procedure infants prefer complex patterns to simple patterns and solid colors Also have a preference for their mother s face within hours after birth gt Reasonably well developed sense of taste gt Can respond to touch and distinguish different odors gt Have a preference for human voices over other sounds 0 Re exes and learning gt Re exes automatic inborn behaviors that occur in response to speci c stimuli 2 that they re born with are rooting and sucking gt Newborns can acquire classically conditioned responses gt They also can imitate facial expressions oz Maturation the genetically programmed biological process that governs out growth gt Infants vary in the age at which they acquire particular skills The sequence in which skills appear is typically the same across children Physical Development 18 1 Cephalocaudal principle development proceeds in a headtofoot direction 2 Proximodistal principle development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermostparts oz The young brain gt Rapid development of neural networks gt First brain areas to mature regulate basic survival functions ie heartbeat and breathing gt Last brain area to mature is the frontal cortex highestlevel cognitive func ons gt Brain growth slows in later childhood but brain maturation continues There s formation of new synapses maturation of association areas and specialization of the cerebral hemispheres Environmental and Cultural In uences 393 Diet enriching environment physical touch experience and birth order 3 Basic Principles 1 Biology sets limits on environmental in uences 2 Environmental in uences can be powerful 3 Biological and environmental forces interact Cognitive Development 393 Piaget s stage model children s thinking changes qualitatively with age gt Schemas organized patterns of thoughts and action Assimilation the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas Accommodation the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change gt The following are Piaget s stages generally oz Assessing Piaget s theory gt General cognitive abilities associated with Piaget s 4 stages occur in the same order across cultures gt Children acquire many skills and concepts earlier than he believed gt Cognitive development is more complex and variable than he proposed Piaget s Stages 1 Sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years old a lnfants understand world through sensory experiences and physical interactions b Object permanence object continues to exist even when it cannot be seen c Words are increasingly used to represent objects needs and ac ons 19 2 Preoperational stage age 2 7 a The world is represented symbolically through words and mental images No understanding of basic mental operations or rules Rapid language development Understanding of the past and future No understanding of Principle of Conservation Irreversibility cannot mentally reverse actions i ie if a boy and girl have the same box of raisin and she spills hers he ll think quotwow she has morequot bc in his mind he can t reverse the spill and deduct that the raisins came from the box g Animism attributing lifelike qualities to physical objects and natural events h Egocentrism difficulty viewing the world from someone else s perspective 3 Concrete operational stage ages 7 12 a Children can perform basic mental operations they understand reversibility display less egocentrism and easily solve conservation problems b They have trouble with hypothetical and abstract reasoning 4 Formal operational stage ages 11 12 through adolescence a Individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems form hypotheses and test them in a thoughtful way TthFlPFT Information Processing Approach 0 9 Views cognitive development as a continuous gradual process Basically the same set of info processing abilities becomes more efficient over time SocialEmotional Development Early emotions and emotion regulation gt Newborns arecapable of displaying basic emotional states gt Sense of self emerges at around 18 months They begin to display pride shame and guilt around age 2 Erikson s psychosiocial theory de ned 8 psychosocial stages that involves a different crisis when a child can develop one way or another like crossroads Examples gt Basic trust vs basic mistrust infancy autonomy vs shame and doubt age 1 2 initiative vs guilt age 3 5 industry vs inferiority age 6 puberty Attachment theory gt Imprinting a sudden biologically primed form of attachment ie you re attached to your caregiver because well ya get food from them 20 gt Attachment the strong emotional bond between children and their primary caregivers gt Strange situation a standardized procedure for examining infant attachment gt Secure infants are better socially adjusted and insecure infants have more behavioral problems 3 types of attachment gt Secure attachment distressed when mother leaves and happy when mother returns gt Anxiousresistant attachment fearful when mother is present demands mother s attention distressed when mother leaves not soothed when mother returns and may angrily resist her attempts at contact gt Anxiousavoidant attachment shows few signs of attachment rarely cries when mother leaves does not seek contact when mother returns Parenting Stvles O O 90 9 Styles of parenting has 2 key dimensions gt Warmth vs hostility gt Restrictiveness versus permissiveness Authoritative parents controlling but warm instructive descriptive gt Establish clear consistently enforced rules gt Compliance is rewarded with warmth and affection gt Associated with most positive childhood outcomes Authoritarian controlling cold unresponsive and rejecting relationship disciplinarian gt Children have lower selfesteem are less popular and perform more poorly in school lndulgent parents check slides for de nition Neglectful parents do not provide warmth rules or guidance gt Children are most likely to be insecurely attached gt Low achievement motivation disturbed peer relationships impulsive aggressive gt Associated with the most negative developmental outcomes Adolescence and Adulthood O 90 Adolescence period of development and gradual transition between childhood and adulthood This was a term due to the invention of 18th 20th century Western Culture when there were societal changes due to the industrial revolution Rites of passage ceremonies that mark the transition from childhood into adulthood in some cultures Puberty a period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction 21 gt Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop primary sex organs secondary non reproductive oz Adolescent egocentrism a selfabsorbed view of one s importance gt Personal fable overestimating the uniqueness of feelings and expedences gt Imaginary audience oversensitivity to social evaluation 393 Physical development in adulthood Max muscle strength is reached at age 25 30 Vision hearing reaction time and coordination peak in early to mid 205 Muscles become weaker and less exible after age 40 Basal metabolism slows weight gains are common Visual acuity declines during middle age Dementia a gradual loss of cognitive abilities that accompanies abnormal brain deterioration and interferes with daily functioning July 9th 2015 Chapter 6 Pg 222233 VVVVVV Consciousness v Consciousness out moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment It is gt Subjective private dynamic selfre ective and intimately linked to selective attention v Measuring states of consciousness gt Selfreport measures gt Behavioral measures gt Physiological measures ie eye tracking Different viewpoints on Consciousness oz Freudian viewpoint has 3 levels of awareness gt Conscious mind what you are aware of at any given moment gt Preconscious what you are aware of but just below the consciousness easily accessible ie what you had for breakfast this morning gt Unconscious you cannot access this info within normal activity ie something that happened long ago 393 Cognitive viewpoint gt Controlled conscious processing conscious use of attention and effort gt Automatic unconscious processing can be performed without conscious awareness of effort this allows for divided attention where you can perform more than one activity at a time Circadian Rhythms o3 Circadian rhythms cyclical changes that occur on a roughly 24 hr basis in many biological processes ie hormone release body temp Circadian is 22 latin for quotaround a dayquot Its regulated by the brain s Suprachiasmatic Nuclei SCN oz Environmental cues help keep SCN neurons on a 24 hr schedule Free running circadian rhythm averages around 242 hours 393 Environmental disruptions can include jet lag night shift work or seasonal affective disorder SAD Sleep Stages oz We cycle through stages approx every 90 minutes oz Beta waves waves that are present when you are awake and alert oz Alpha waves waves that are present when you are feeling relaxed and drowsy 1 Light sleep from which you can be easily awakened 2 Deeper level of sleep characterized by sleep spindles bursts of brain activity 3 Slow and large delta waves 4 Deepest level of sleep where there s primarily delta waves 5 REM Rapid Eye Movements sleep rapid eye movements high arousal and frequent dreaming General Info oz Types of sleep deprivation gt Short term up to 45 hours without sleep gt Long term more than 45 hours without sleep gt Partial being allowed to sleep no more than 5 hours per night for one or more consecutive nights oz Why do we sleep gt Restoration model sleep recharges our bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue gt Evolutionarycircadian sleep models sleep increases a species chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands gt Sleep and memory consolidation model REMrebound effect a tendency to increase the amount of REM sleep after being deprived of it Memory consolidation process by which the brain transfers info into long term memory Sleep Disorders oz Insomnia chronic difficulty in falling asleep staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep gt Restless leg syndrome urge to move one s leg or other body parts while attempting to sleep gt Multiple causes drugs 23 oz Narcolepsy extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks gt Cataplexy a sudden loss of muscle tone often triggered by excitement and other strong emotions gt Genetic predisposition It has no cure but is managed through meds oz REM sleep behavior disorder RBD the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM sleep paralysis is absent The cause is unknown oz Sleepwalking occurs during stage 3 4 typically people have no memory of the event It occurs in 10 30 of children 5 of adults 393 Sleeptalking somniloquy gt Hilarious Sleep Talking Man Youtube Video oz Night terrors frightening dreams that arouse the sleeper to a nearpanic state gt Common during stages 3 and 4 occurs in 6 of children 1 2 of adu s gt More intense than nightmares they wake up in a panic gt Sleeper typically does not remember the event later oz Sleep apnea people repeatedly stop and restart breathing during sleep can be life threatening Dreams oz When do we dream gt Dreams can occur during any sleep stage gt Hypnagogic state the transitional state from wakefulness through early stage 2 sleep This is when visual hallucinations are common gt Dreaming most often occurs during REM oz What do we dream about gt Most dreams aren t as strange as they re stereotyped to be gt They commonly contain negative content gt There s gender differences Women dream about men and women equally men dream about men more gt Cultural background life experiences and current concerns can shape dream content oz Daydreams signi cant part of the waking consciousness that provides stimulation during periods of boredom gt Fantasy prone personality individuals who often live in a vivid rich fantasy world that they control gt Most are female and most have greater visual imagery than other waking mental activities gt Less vivid emotional and bizarre than nighttime dreams Theories on Dreamind oz Feud s psychoanalytic theory about why we dream 24 gt Wish ful llment The gratification8h of our unconscious desires and needs including sexual and aggressive urges that are too unacceptable to be consciously acknowledged gt Dreams have 2 different types of content Manifest content the surface story Latent content the dream s disguised psychological meaning gt Dream work the process by which a dream s latent content is transformed into the manifest content oz Cognitive theories gt Problem solving dream models dreams can help us nd creative solutions to our problems gt Cognitive process dream theories focuses on the process of how we dream Other Alterations of Consciousness oz Out of body experience OBE sense of consciousness leaving one s body 393 Near death experience NDE OBE reported by people who have nearly died or died and were revived o3 D ja vu feeling of reliving an experience that is new oz Meditation variety of practices that train attention and awareness July 14th 2015 DRUGGSSS Drugs and the Brain 393 Drugs are carried throughout the brain by capillaries gt Bloodbrain barrier a lining of tightly packed cells that lets vital nutrients pass through so neurons can function It screens out many foreign substances but various drugs pass through 393 Agonist a drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter lt enhances a neuron s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters and makes deactivation more difficult Binds with an stimulates postsynaptic receptor sites gt Le opiates relive pain by activating the receptor sites that receive endorphins Emphetamines cause neurons to release greater amounts of dopamine and norepinephrine Antagonist drugs that inhibit or decrease the action of a neurotransmitter It reduces a neuron s ability to synthesize store or release neurotransmitters Prevents NTs from binding with the postsynaptic neuron Drug tolerance and dependence gt Tolerance decreasing responsiveness to a drug over time gt Compensatory responses reactions opposite to that of the drug increases tolerance 25 These are biological and also learned Learned your body starts detecting environmental cues that send the message to the body quotbeer s comingquot and that alcohol is a depressant They can be so strong that they d cause death through an overdose Bc the addict takes the dose they were used to taking but the body hadn t had a chance to compensate so it became an overdose gt Withdrawal occurrence of compensatory responses after discontinued drug use gt Substance dependence substance use that causes a person signi cant distress or substantially impairs that person s life A drug can be addictive wo producing tolerance or withdrawl oz Types of drugs gt Depressants decrease nervous system activity feeling of tension and anxiety Too high of a dose can slow down vital life processes to the point of death Alcohol Alcohol increases the activity of GABA and decreases the activity of glutamate It also depresses the action of inhibitory control centers of the brain boosting the activity of neurotransmitters such as dopamine Blood Alcohol Level BAL a measure of alcohol concentration in the body Elevated BAL impairs reaction time coordination and decision making Alcohol myopia the inability to pay attention to as much info as when sober Expectancy Theory effects produced by expectations of how alcohol would in uence them Stimulants O 90 Stimulants drugs that increase neural ring and arouse the nervous system It increases blood pressure respiration etc gt Le Amphetamines stimulants prescribed to reduce appetite and fatigue decrease the need for sleep and reduce depression They increase dopamine and norepinephrine activity gt also Cocaine a stimulant that produces excitation a sense of increased muscular strength and euphoria lt blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine gt Ecstasy MDMA a stimulant that produces feelings of pleasure elation empathy and warmth It works by increasing serotonin functioning but it possibly damages the serotonin reuptake system gt Opiates a class of drugs derived from the opium poppy includes morphine codeine and heroin It provides pain relief by stimulating receptors normally activated by endorphins and induces euphoria by increasing dopamine activity They re highly addictive 26 gt Hallucinogens powerful mindaltering drugs that produce hallucinations They re considered sacred in many tribal cultures and can cause violent outbursts paranoia and panic They distort sensory experience and blue the boundaries between reality and fantasy gt Cannabis increases GABA activity lnhaled symptoms occur within minutes and last 3 4 hours lngested symptoms occur within a few hours last considerably longer Misconception is amotivational syndrome chronic marijuana use causes ppl to become unmotivated and apathetic Pot contains more cancer causing substances than tobacco It may produce negative changes in mood sensory distortions and feelings of panic June 23ml 2015 Memory 393 Memory info that is retained longer than the stimulus that created it Information Processing Encoding Storage and Retrieval o3 Encoding getting info into the system by translating it into some neural code that your brain is going to be able to process 393 Storage retaining the info over time oz Retrieval processes that access the stored info Atkinson 8 Shiffrin Model 1968 Model of Memory 393 Model of Memory made by Atkinson amp Shiffrin in 1968 it believes that there are 3 phases gt The process Sensory input l sensory memory but unattended info is lost Then what you pay attention to l short term memory unprocessed info is lost Then you encode l long term memory where some info may be lost over time 27 luleintenenee rehearsal Seneenl i REti iEV quot l l l Unattended tinreireereerl Seine in inrnietinn inf rmetien infermetien is lest is Inst may he lest ever time Sensorv Memorv o3 Sensory Memory brie y holds incoming sensory info that we receive through our senses Within the sensory registers there are initial info processors for different senses gt Iconic store visual info George Sperling in 1960 described the Partial Report Paradigm He discovered that the capacity of our sensory register is huge but the duration is less than 12 a second gt Echoic store auditory info Capacity is also huge duration is 2 4 seconds Short Term Memory 393 Short term memory temporarily holds a limited amount of info gt Memory codes visual phonological What it sounds like semantic meaning motor muscle memory basically v AKA Working memory temporarily stores and processes info but it s coming from a different model working memory model Founded by the guy who drove into a ditch bc FOOTBALL YEAH gt Phonological loop stores mental representations of sounds gt Visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial info oz Capacity gt George Miller Magic Number is 7 2 things possible to be remembered gt Chunking combining individual items into larger units of meaning 393 Duration gt If there is interference then you can only retain the info for 20 30 seconds Long Term Memory oz Long term memory our library of more durable stored memories It has unlimited storage capacity and memories can endure for a lifetime 393 Permanence vs Alteration 28 gt Permanence founded by Pen eld in the 1950519605 Anything that ever happened to you is stored somewhere in your brain But bc of interference other things etc we can t access everything but it s all there gt Alteration Believes that everytime you think of something you change it just a little bit Evidence for LTM and STM 393 Serial position curve the ability to recall an item is in uenced by the item s position in a series gt Primacy effect superior recall of early item This is evidence for long term memory through rehearsal bc you were able to rehearse them enough to encode into long term memory Semantic errors also prove this ie saying big instead of large gt Recency effect superior recall of recent items Evidence for short term memory it s a quick info dump of the rehearsal buffer Auditory errors also prove this ie top for pop Methods of Encoding o3 Rehearsal which has 2 diff types gt MaintenanceRote continuous repetition but it s more effective in using the spacing effect Distributed words are much more effective than massed words ie 4 words spaced throughout vs 4 massed words gt Elaborative rehearsal focusing on the meaning of info or expanding on it in some way ie using imagery selfapplication chunking organize and more Levels of processing visual auditory and sematics Mnemonics a technique for organizing info so it can more easily be recalled ie Peg word Method of Loci geographic locations oz The way you encode something plays a really important role on the way you retrieve it gt For example it s a lot more difficult to recall the months in alphabetical order July 21St 2015 Divisions of Long Term Memory 29 oz Explicit Memory conscious intentional memory that is accessible There are 2 types of explicit memory gt Semantic memory general factual knowledge like stuff you learn in school gt Episodic memory some event or something that has happened to you More of a personal experience than semantic memory oz lmplicit Memory out of our conscious awareness and dif cult to describe like riding a bike gt Procedural memory Storage oz Schemas a cognitive structure which provides a meaningful framework for organizing information For example you know what happens when you go into a restaurant You don t just go in and stand there like where s the food gt Schema pattern of knowledge that describes what is typical gt Script wellstructured sequence of events usually associated with some highly familiar activity gt Schemas aid in encoding store the gist getting the idea and aid in retrieval llinthegaps Creation of an associated net 393 Organizational gt Clustering We group things into clusters gt Conceptual hierarchies from speci c to broad ie canary l bird l animal v Semantic Networks consists of nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts gt Spread of activation the process by which thinking about one word triggers other associations The strength decreases as it travels outward from the center v Associative network activation of one network leads to a spreading activation of related concepts gt Priming how we gured out that humans have an associative network It s the activation of one concept or one unit of information by another The experiment that gured this out ste up a computer that would ash a collection of letters and you d have to answer yes or no depending on whether or not it is an actual word You ll respond yes faster to nurse if it was preceded by doctor Retrieval o3 Retrieval the process of getting info out of memory 393 2 methods of testing 30 gt Recall task like essay or short answer tests gt Recognition task like multiple choice questions where you have to recognize the correct information 393 Factors that impact retrieval gt Associations gt Cue dependence theory retrieval cues reinstate the past 393 Encoding speci city principle memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding gt Context dependent memory relies on external cues such as backtracking what you were doing before you lost things gt State dependent memory relies on internal cues such as caffeine which changes your internal state Memory as a Reconstructive Process 0 We construct memories by piecing together bits of stored info in ways that seem real and accurate Schemas lead us to retrieve info based on what we already know Misinformation Effect the distortion of a memory by misleading post event info 393 False Memory Forgetting o3 Hermann Ebbinghaus was famous for developing the forgetting curve gt Forgetting curve correct recall vs time passage Correct recall never reaches 0 If you know the material really well you ll never really forget everything gt Savings you relearn at a faster rate 393 Decay theory with time and disuse the long term physical memory trace in the nervous system fades away 393 Interference theory we forget stuff because there s competition from other material gt Retroactive interference new info impairs the retention of previously learned info gt Proactive Interference material learned in the past interferes with recall of new info Amnesia oz Amnesia Memory loss due to special conditions such as brain injuries illness psychological trauma There are different types gt Retrograde memory loss for events that took place before the onset of amnesia gt Anterograde memory loss for events that occur after the onset 31 gt Korsakoff s syndrome it s caused by thiamine de ciency which is caused by extreme levels of alcohol but also people who only decide to like drinkjuice bc YAS APPLE JUICE gt Source amnesia you remember the info but its disconnected from how or where the info originated gt lnfantile amnesia inability to remember personal experiences from the rst few years of our lives like 2 years old lts possibly due to the immaturity of brain regions that encode long term episodic memories also possibly a failure of deep encoding This happens to nearly every adult Alzheimer s oz It s a progressive brain disorder oz Symptoms include forgetfulness poorjudgement confusion and disorientation 393 Patients have plaques and tangles in their brain gt Plaques clumps of protein fragments that build up on the outside of neurons gt Tangles bers that get twisted and wound together within neurons Biology oz Where are memories located oz Hippocampus acts to consolidate the new information oz Amygdala remembers emotionally arousing aspects of events particularly fear Making Memories in the Brain 393 NMDA receptor ow of info from one neuron to another oz NMDA receptors become activated the sending neuron releases glutamate and quotreceivingquot neuron becomes excited Special Mechanisms o3 Flashbulb memories memories that are quotburnedquot in our brain like the ashbulb on a camera ones that are highly emotional and unexpected gt These memories are subject to normal memory processes Therefore details will be less accurate over time and its only a strong memory due to rehearsal told to friends more oz Recovered memories a memory that has 2 characteristics its shockingtraumatic and there was an extended period in the individual s life when heshe didn t remember it 32 gt Freud s hypothesis painful childhood memories are blocked from consciousness by a process called repression July 23ml 2015 Learning LLearning a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience or practice L4 basic learning processes are Habituation Classical conditioning Operant conditioning and Observational learning LBehaviorism assumes that there are laws of learning that apply to virtually all organisms Believes that learning is explained in terms of directly observable events 4 Types of Basic Learning Processes W LAdapting to the environment gtPersonal adaptation focuses on how an organism s behavior changes in response to environmental stimuli gtHabituation a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Classical Conditioning oz Classical conditioning a process in which an organism learns to associate 2 stimuli gt One stimulus elicits a response that originally was elicited only by the other stimulus gt Useful in treating phobias and anxiety disorders gt Classical conditioning can be used to elicit an allergic reaction to a previously neutral stimulus Acquisition the period during which a response is being learned Extinction the CS is presented repeatedly in the absence of the UCS causing the CR to weaken and eventually disappear oz Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period and Mo new learning trials oz Phenomenon that happens gt Stimulus generalization stimuli similar to the initial CS elicit a CR gt Discrimination a CR occurs in the presence of one stimulus but not others gt Higherorder conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS One layer removed CS it s weaker and more likely to become extinct 0 lvan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning while studying digestion in animals 33 oz Types of stimulusresponse gt gt gt gt gt Neutral stimulus a stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response in an organism Unconditioned stimulus UCS elicits an innate response the UCR wo prior learning Unconditioned response UCR an innate response that is elicited by a stimulus the UCS wo prior learning Conditioned stimulus CS a stimulus that through association with a UCS come to elicit a conditioned response similar to the original UCR Conditioned response CR a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus oz Ways of pairing associations gt gt gt gt St 0 9 Forward shortdelay pairing CS appeared rst and is still present when the UCS appears Forward trace pairing CS appears then disappears then UCS is brought out usually 23 seconds after Simultaneous pairing CS and UCR are presented at the same time Backward pairing UCS then CS rongest when gt There are repeated CSUCS pairings gt The UCS is more intense gt gt The sequence involves forward pairing The time interval bt the CS and UCS is short oz Types of therapy related to classical conditioning gt gt gt Systematic desensitization a type of therapy where patients learn musclerelaxation techniques and then are gradually exposed to fear provoking stimuli Aversion Therapy conditions an aversion to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behavior by pairing it with a noxious UCS Anticipatory nausea and vomiting ANV developed by many chemotherapy patients in anticipation of a treatment session Thorndike oz Thorndike s Law of Effect a response followed by a satisfying consequence will be more likely to occur A response followed by an annoying consequence will become less likely to occur gt Instrumental learning the Operant Conditioning oz Operant conditioning behavior is in uenced by the consequences that follow it oz Skinner box a special chamber used to study operant conditioning The box contains a lever on one wall and a food pellet is released when the lever is pressed ABC O 90 34 gt A antecedents of behavior gt B behaviors gt C consequences that follow behavior Ex nc on gt Operant extinction the weakening and eventual disappearance of a response bc it is no longer reinforced Resistance to extinction the degree to which nonreinforced responses persist Operant generalization an operant response occurs to a new antecedent stimulus or situation that is similar to the original one Shaping reinforcing successive approximations toward a nal response Chaining develops a sequence of responses by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response Reinforcement a response is strengthened by an outcome that follows it gt Reinforcer the outcome a stimulus or event that increases the frequency of a response Primary reinforcers stimuli that are naturally reinforcing bc they satisfy biological needs Secondary reinforcers stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through their association with primary reinforcers gt Positive Reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened by the presentation of a stimulus ie giving a raise for good performance gt Negative Reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened by the removal or avoidance of an aversive stimulus Negative reinforcer the aversive stimulus that is removed or avoided ie applying ointment to relieve itchy rash leads to a higher future likelihood of applying ointment gt Timing of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement every response of a particular type is reinforced Partial intermittent reinforcement only a portion of the responses of a particular type are reinforced Ratio schedule a certain percentage of responses are reinforced Interval schedule a certain amount of time must elapse between reinforcements regardless of how many responses occur Fixed schedule reinforcement occurs after a xed of responses or after a xed time interval Variable schedule the required of responses or the time interval varies at random around an average Punishment a response is weakened by an outcome that follows it gt Punisher a consequence that weakens decreases the frequency of a response 35 gt Positive Punishment ie yelling at a teenager for stealing something gt Negative Punishment ie teenager s access to car restricted by parents due to a teenager s breaking curfew gt Problems It only suppresses behavior doesn t provide an acceptable alternative It may also arouse negative emotions gt Effective punishment must Occur after every transgression Be immediate Be intense Not be signaled by discriminative stimulus Discriminative stimulus a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences gt Le a light in the Skinner Box may indicate whether or not food will be dispensed when the lever is pressed Observational Learning Observational learning occurs by observing the behavior of a model gt Modeling humans capacity to learn by observation Social cognitive theory people learn by observing the behavior of models and acquiring the belief that they can produce behaviors to in uence the events in their lives Modeling process gt Attention gt Retention gt Reproduction gt Motivation Selfefficacy people s belief that they have the capability to perform behaviors that will produce a desired outcome July 28th 2015 Motivation and Emotion Midterm 2 O 90 O 9 Monday 440pm Smith 205 Exam is Thursday Motivation 0 90 Motivation a process that in uences the direction persistence and vigor of goal directed behavior Perspectives on Motivation 36 1lns ncttheo es a Instinct an inherited characteristic that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus 2 Homeostasis and drives a Homeostasis internal physiological equilibrium that requires a sensory mechanism a response system and a control center b Set point xed level that maintain homeostasis c Drives internal tension that motivates an organism The problem is that we often behave in ways that increase rather than reduce arousal For example skydiving dieting any extreme sport etc 3 Approach and avoidance motivation a Behavioral Activation System BAS produces movement toward positive goals in anticipation of pleasure b Behavioral Inhibition System BIS produces fear and escapeavoidance behaviors c BAS and BlS involved diff neurotransmitter systems and different brain regions d Theory helps organize the cognitive physiological and behavioral process involved in seeking pleasurepain 4 Cognitive Processes a Expectancy x value theory behavior is determined by strength of the expectation that behavior will lead to a goal and the incentive value that person places on goal b Types of motivation i Extrinsic Motivation performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment ii lntrinsic motivation performing an activity for its own sake 5 Psychodynamic view a Unconscious motives affect how we behave sexualaggressive motives motives for selfesteemsocial belonging people are not always aware of the factors that motivate them 6 Humanistic a Maslow s Hierarchy of needs De ciency needs basic needs that everyone has to satisfy for survival at the bottom Growth needs atthetop i Selfactualization the ultimate human motive to ful ll our potential lt s little peaks where at that moment there s nowhere elsenobody else you would rather be Emotion 393 Function of emotion gt We use mood to make judgments gt Provide information about the world gt The objectives toward which we strive 37 v Hedonic principle we are motivated to maximize pleasure and minimize pain v Important adaptive functions of emotion gt Increase chances of survival gt Formation of intimate relationships gt Broadens our thinking and behavior gt Important form of social communication gt Important part of life satisfaction Nature of Emotions oz Instrumental behaviors behaviors directed at achieving some emotion relevant goal gt Emotional responses are often quotcalls to actionquot gt quotInverted Uquot relationship between emotional arousal and performance oz Polygraph tests measures physiological responses such as respiration eart rate and skin conductance gt The problem is that innocent ppl appear guilty when autonomic activity increases and guilty ppI can beat the polygraph by controlling activity increases Theories of Emotion 1 JamesLange Theory our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience Bodily feedback is necessary to experience emotions 2 CannonBard Theory the subjective experience of emotion and physiological arousal are independent responses to an emotion arousing situation 3 Expressive Behaviors a Facial feedback hypothesis feedback from the facial muscles to the brain plays a key role in determining our emotions 4 CognitiveAffective Theories examine how cognitions and physiological responses interact 5 Twofactor theory of emotion the intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling something Situational cues give us the information we need to label the arousal Hunger Physiology of Hunger 0 Metabolism the body s rate of energy caloric utilization gt Basal metabolic rate basic energy expenditure necessary to maintain basic bodily functions 393 Signals that start a meal gt Stomach contractions correspond to feelings of hunger O 90 38 gt Changes in glucose supply provide a signal that helps the brain regulate hunger Hypothalamus is responsible for hunger gt Ghrelin hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach Other Aspects of Hunger O 90 O 90 Psychological Aspects of hunger eating is both positively and negatively reinforced by attitudes habits and beliefs gt For example quotfinish all the food on your platequot Environmental and cultural factors gt Food availability gt Food taste and variety gt Food cues sight and smell gt Cultural norms such as snacking while watching TV Weight Regulation Obesity 25 30 of Americans are obese another 30 35 are overweight gt BMI Body Mass Index the ratio of height and weight Genetic factors genetics account for 40 70 of variation gt Basal metabolic rate depends on genetics gt Tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue Dieting and Weight loss gt Why should we do it Bc being overweight alters body chemistry and energy expenditure It results in increased insulin levels makes exercise more difficult increased rate of heart disease and even cancer gt Dieting slows basal metabolism Eating disorders gt Anorexia Nervosa an intense fear of being fat where people severely restrict food intake to the point of selfstarvation This produces bone loss stresses the heart and increases the risk of death gt Bulimia Nervosa cycles of bingeeating and purging but more bulimics are normal weight Purging can include overuse of laxatives over exercising and vomiting Sex Motivation 0 90 O 9 Sexual drives a wishcraving for sexual activity and sexual pleasure Rise in premarital sex was due to gt Changing social norms gt Tendency to delay marriage gt Trend is leveling off and may be reversing 39 Physiology of sex oz Sexual response cycle gt Excitement whatever prompts sexual interest where people start to experience sexual pleasure Physiological changes occur such as an erection gt Plateau Sexual tension continues to build gt Orgasm Climax of the building sexual pleasurephysical changes peak These are involuntary contractions in the genitals gt Resolution relaxation and a strong sense of wellbeing Psychology of Sex Arousal typically begins with desire and a sexual stimulus Sexual fantasy affect physiological functioning Sexual dysfunction chronic long term impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person Multiple possible causes such as drugs diseases injuries performance anxiety victim of a sexual assault 393 Cultural and Environmental in uences gt The psychological meaning of sex depends on cultural contexts o3 Pornography gt Rape myth many pornographic materials suggest that men are entitled to sex and that women enjoy being coerced into sex 0 Sexual orientation gt Unidimensional view single dimension ranging from quotexclusively heterosexualquot to quotexclusively homosexualquot gt Multidimensional view self identity sexual attractive actual sexual behavior gt Determinantsln uences Gender nonconforming behaviors Heredity Prenatal sexhormone activity Fraternal birth order effect Personality style and socialization July 30th 2015 Social Behavior and Thinking Social In uences O O O 90 90 90 History oz 1898 Triplett observed some cyclists and noticed that they cycle faster when they re with others gt Social facilitation the tendency for the presence of others to enhance our performance on simple tasks and impair performance on complex tasks Norms 40 oz Social norms shared expectations about how people should think feel and behave They re often implicit unspoken and they regulate daily behavior wo our conscious awareness 0 Social role a set of norms that characterizes how ppl in a given social position ought to behave gt Role con ict when the norms that accompany different roles clash such as when you re told you have to work next Thursday but you also have a midterm as a student Conformity oz Conformity the adjustment of individual behaviors attitudes and beliefs to a group standard oz 2 Theories on why conformity occurs gt Normative social in uence conforming in order to be accepted by other ppl and to avoid rejection gt Informational social in uence following others bc we believe that they are right 393 Experiment on conformity gt Famous experiment by Solomon Asch 1951 was set up where students were asked to judge which of 3 comparison lines was the same length as a standard line 37 of participants conformed to the incorrect group answer 393 Minority in uence there are ways of ppl in the minority in uencing the majority Such as gt Being highly committed to its point of view passion gt Remaining independent in the face of majority pressure gt Appearing to keep an open mind gt Maintaining a consistent position over time gt Not appearing unreasonable deviant or negative Factors that Affect Conformity 1 Group size conformity increases as group size increases up to 5 members a Beyond 5 it makes no difference 2 Presence of a dissenter one person disagreeing with the others greatly reduces group conformity Compliance 393 Compliance techniques strategies that may manipulate you into saying yes when you really want to say no gt Norm of reciprocity when others treat us well we believe that we should respond in kind gt Doorintheface a persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject it and then presents a smaller request 41 We feel bad so we re more likely to say yes to the smaller request gt Footinthedoor a persuader gets you to comply with a small request rst and later presents a larger request gt Lowballing a persuader gets you to commit to some action and before you actually perform the behavior they increase the quotcostquot of that same behavior Behavior in Groups 393 Social compensation working harder in a group than when alone to compensate for other members lower output oz Group polarization when a group of likeminded ppl discusses an issue the quotaveragequot opinion of group members tends to become more extreme gt Causes Normative social in uence individuals who are attracted to a group may adopt a more extreme position to gain the group s approval Informational social in uence ppl may hear arguments supporting their positions that they had not previously considered 393 Deindividuation a loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behavior gt Anonymity to outsiders making an individual less identi able to ppl outside the group reduces feelings of accountability This increases the risk of antisocial actions such as kicking a man who didn t do anything wrong to death Groupthink o3 Groupthink the tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking bc they are striving to seek agreement 393 Most likely to occur when a group gt Is under high stress to reach a decision gt Is insulated from outside input gt Has a directive leader gt Has high cohesiveness such as being on a top cabinet or really important Board 0 Symptoms of groupthink gt Direct pressure is often applied to ppl who express doubt gt Mind guards ppl who prevent negative information from reaching the group gt Members display selfcensorship and withhold their doubts gt An illusion of unanimity is created Social Loa ng oz Social loa ng people expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone gt Group collection of ppl with something in common that distinguishes them from others 42 gt Collective effort model ppl will put forth only as much effort as they expect is needed to reach the collective goal 393 More likely to occur when gt The person believes that individual performance is not being monitored gt The task or the group has less value or meaning to the person gt The person generally displays low motivation for success gt The person expects that other group members will display high effort August 4th 2015 Obedience Milgram Experiment 1974 43 40 males 20 50 years old with a wide range of careers All of them at least refused at some point in the experiment but 67 conUnued gt One of the participants went all the way up to 450 and became very distressed repeatedly telling the experimenter to go and check in on theearner v The experiment was done in multiple different ways that manipulated the position of both the learner and the experimenter gt Obedience was signi cantly reduced as the victim was closer in proximity to the teacher gt Obedience also dropped as the experimenter was not present v ln icted insight many of these ppl most likely thought that they wouldn t be one of the Nazis leading ppl to their death in Germany but after this experiment that may have changed leading to long lasting effects 0 O 90 90 In uence Factors 1 Remoteness of the victim 2 Closeness and legitimacy of the authority gure 3 Diffusion of responsibility obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work Attribution oz Attributions judgments about the causes of our own and other people s behavior gt Personal internal attributions ppl s characteristics cause their behavior gt Situational external attributions aspects of the situation cause a behavior 393 Selfserving bias the tendency to make personal attributions for successes and situational attributions for failures 3 Types of info determine the type of attribution we make Get the slide from Obedience lecture on 84 for this The Kim slide 1 Consistency 2 Distinctiveness 3 Consensus Fundamental attribution error FAE o3 Fundamental attribution error when explaining other ppl s behavior we gt Underestimate the impact of the situation gt Overestimate the role of personal factors oz FAE is reduced when ppl have time to re ect on theirjudgements or are highly motivated to be careful 393 It doesn t apply to our own behavior 44 lmpression 0 Primacy effect our tendency to attach more important to initial information 393 Mental set a readiness to perceive the world in a particular way in uenced by schemas gt Le describing someone as quotbright energetic aggressivequot vs quotaggressive energetic brightquot oz Stereotype a generalized belief about a group or category of ppl which can bias the way we perceive other ppl s behavior oz Selfful lling prophecy our expectations affect our behavior toward a person because the person then behaves in a way that con rms our expectations Attitudes oz Attitude a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus gt They in uence behavior more strongly when situational factors that contradict our attitudes are weak gt They have a greater in uence when we re aware of them and when they re strongly held 0 Cognitive dissonance ppl strive for consistency in their cognition Dissonance is created when 2 or more cognitions contradict one another gt Ppl who were paid 20 said it was boring bc they didn t have to change their attitude Ppl who were paid 1 said it was fun in order to justify why they did it 393 Get the slide on the Boring Task that s about Turning Pegs Preiudice oz Prejudice a negative attitude toward ppl based on their membership in a group gt Explicit prejudice ppl express their opinions publicly gt Implicit prejudice hidden from public view can be tested by the IAT 393 Cognitive roots of prejudice categorization and quotusthem thinking leads to the perception of ingroups and outgroups o3 Discrimination overt behavior that involves treating ppl unfairly based on the group to which they belong August 6th 2015 MIDTERM 2 Personality o3 Spurious personality inventory treating un nished pictures Personality 393 Personality distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a person s responses to life situations 45 4 Models of Personality oz Psychodynamic Neoanalytic 1st Model of Personality Psychodynamic Perspective oz Freud s psychoanalytic theory oz Believed in psychic energy which constantly seeks release Structure of Personality oz 3 independent interacting and often con icting systems ld Ego and SuperEgo 1 Id the innermost core of the personality lt s present at birth the source of all psychic energy and exists totally within the unconscious mind a It operates according to the pleasure principle the need for instant grati cation 2 Ego has direct contact with reality It develops second and exists primarily at the conscious level a Operates based on the reality principle the tendency to postpone grati cation until it can nd an appropriate outlet b It s the quotExecutive of Personalityquot the actual person The head bt the little cartoon angel and devil 3 Superego moral arm of personality It s the last to develop you learn the traditional valuesideals of family and society It strives to control the impulses of the id a Morality principle a blind quest for moral perfection Defense Mechanisms oz Defense mechanisms unconscious mental operations that min anxiety by denying or distorting reality ie repression denial displacement projection reaction formation rationalization sublimation 1 Denial completely reject the thought or feeling 2 Displacement redirect your feelings to another target especially one who is less threatening Slamming the door counts as well 3 Projection when you think someone else has the same feelings ie quotthat professor hates mequot when really you re the one mad at the professor 4 5 6 46 Reaction formation turn the feeling into its exact opposite ie telling your friend quotshe s an amazing professorquot Rationalization come up w various explanations to justify the situation all the while you are denying your feelings Sublimation Redirect the feeling into a socially productive activity such as writing a poem about anger when you re angry about your professor Psychosexual stages oz Psychosexual stages periods of development Id s pleasureseeking tendencies are focused on speci c gt Fixation a state of arrested psychosexual development where instincts are focused on a particular stage It arises from too much or too little stimulation of erogenous zone Oral stage infancy 0 18 months Erotogenic zone is the mouth a If xation happens they might become more talkative or dependent as an adult They become very needy Anal stage ages 2 3 Erotogenic zone is the anusurethra There is satisfaction from elimination toilet training a If xation happens they might become more compulsive obsessive cleanliness extreme messiness etc Phallic stage 4 5 Erotogenic zone is the penisclitoris and children develop erotic feelings for oppositesex parent Thus hostility will develop toward the samesex parent Boys have castration anxiety and girls have penis envy a If xation happens they might become more irtatious vain jealous and have many competitive features of their personality b Oedipus Complex love for the mother and hostility toward the father c Electra complex female counterpart of the Oedipus complex Latency Stage 6 12 years Dormant sexual interest and the focus is on school and peer activities Genital Stage 12 adulthood Focus is on normal healthy adult sexuality 2 Criticisms 0 too much emphasis of infantile sexuality oz too much emphasis on the events of childhood as determinants of adult personality 2quot I Model Neoanalytic Approach Alfred Adler 1870 1937 47 393 Alfred Adler 1870 1937 oz Believes that humans are motivated by social interest 393 Striving for superiority ppl are driven to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves gt Inferiority complex low selfesteem and constant need to demonstrate superiority He believes that most mental illnesses are due to the needs to compensate for the inferiority complex Carl Jung 1875 1961 oz Personal unconscious based on individual life experiences oz Collective unconscious memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race Obiect Relations 0 Object relations theories mental representations that ppl form of themselves and other ppl as a result of early experiences w caregivers gt Object anything that s the target of our impulses oz Attachment Theory John Bowlby 1969 grew out of object relations theories gt Early attachment experiences can be related to later adult relationships August 11th 2015 Personality Cont and Psychological oz 110 on Connect 10 pt IAT 10 pt for participation quizzes 260 possible points 130 through exams 40 40 50 130 through hw 3quot I Model Humanistic Perspective oz Phenomenology emphasis on the primacy of immediate experience 393 Humanists generally embrace a positive view of humanity It emphasizes creative potential and inborn striving toward personal growth 393 4 basic principles of the humanistic perspective gt Experiencing person is of primary interest not the early caregiver the father the teacher etc gt Choice creativity and selfactualization are things that we all have gt Meaningfulness must precede objectivity gt Dignity of the person is held dearly in the humanistic perspective Theorv of the Self Carl Rooers oz The Self an organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneseW oz Selfconsistency an absence of con ict among selfperceptions oz Congruence consistency between selfperceptions and experience 48 O 90 Need for positive regard an inborn need for acceptance sympathy and love from others Unconditional positive regard communicates that the person is worthy of love regardless of accomplishments or behavior Selfesteem how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves gt Ppl tend to have higher selfesteem when parents Show unconditional acceptance and love Establish clear guidelines for behavior Reinforce compliance while giving the child appropriate freedoms Selfenhancement a tendency to gain and preserve a positive selfimage gt Ppl consistently rate themselves as better than average 0 90 O 90 O 90 Evaluation of the Perspective oz It relies too heavily on self reports oz The theory can be measured and tested 4th Model The Trait Perspective 393 Personality traits relatively stable cognitive emotional and behavioral characteristics that help establish individual identities 0 Goals of trait theorists gt Describe the basic classes of behavior that de ne personality gt Devise ways of measuring individual differences in personality traits gt Use these measures to understand and predict behavior Beginning of the Trait Perspective oz Lexical approach proposing traits on the basis of words from our everyday language 393 I missed something here fuck Five Factor Model oz These can be used for ppl with psychological disorders too oz OCEAN Extraversion Neuroticism Conscientiousness Agreeableness Openness to Experience gt Conscientiousness conscientious ppl tend to be careful and responsible gt Agreeableness these ppl tend to be friendly and easy to get along with gt Openness to experience these ppl tend to be intellectually curious and unconvenUonal oz Some traits are more stable than others gt lntroversionextraversion selfesteem emotionality and activity level remain relatively stable gt Neuroticism openness and extraversion tend to decline w age gt Agreeableness and conscientiousness tend to increase w age 49 oz Crosssituational consistency gt Traits interact w other traits as well as characteristics of different s uanns gt Consistency is in uenced by how important a given trait is for a person gt Differences in the tendency to tailor behavior to a given situation Evaluation 393 Focuses attention on identifying classifying and measuring stable enduring personality dispositions 0 Needs to look at how traits interact w each other oz Gives a description not an explanation Biolodical Foundations oz Eysenck s extraversionstability model personality can be understood in terms of 2 basic dimensions gt lntroversionextraversion Extraverted ppl are habitually underaroused and bored gt Stabilityinstability neuroticism Personality Assessment 0 Behavioral assessment an explicit coding system that contains the behavioral categories of interest gt Observers are trained until they show high interjudge reliability oz Personality scales gt Objective measures standard sets of questions that are scored using an agreedupon scoring key oz Projective tests present subjects with ambiguous stimuli and ask for some interpretation of them gt The subject s interpretation must come from within lt projects inner needs feelings and ways of viewing the world onto the stimulus Psychological Disorders What is Abnormal o3 Abnormal behavior behavior that is personally distressing personally dysfunctional andor so culturally deviant that other ppl judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive oz Vulnerabilitystress model each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder gt Predisposition can be biological environmental or cultural gt Disorder is created when triggered by a stressor Anxiety Disorders 50 v Anxiety tension and apprehension that is a natural response to a perceived threat oz Anxiety disorders gt Frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them gt Anxiety interferes w daily life 393 4 components gt Subjectiveemotional gt Cognitive gt Physiological gt Behavioral 5 Types of Anxiety Disorders 1 Phobias persistent strong and irrational fears of certain objects or s uanns a Agoraphobia fear of open or public places b Social phobias fear of social evaluation and embarrassment c Speci c phobia fear of dogs snakes spiders heights etc 2 Generalized anxiety disorder chronic state of diffused anxiety a Can markedly interfere with daily functioning It makes it diff to concentrate make decisions and remember commitments b Onsent typically occurs in childhood and adolescence 3 Panic disorder sudden unpredictable and intense fear a It typically occurs wo any identi able stimulus Many develop a persistent fear of future attacks andor agoraphobia b Tends to appear in late adolescence or early adulthood c Affects 6 of the pop d Symptoms i Chest pains hyperventilation choking sensation difficulty breathing feelings of detachmentunreality 4 Obsessivecompulsive disorder a Obsessions repetitive and unwelcome thoughts images or impulses b Compulsions repetitive behavioral responses 5 Posttraumatic Stress can occur in ppl who have been exposed to traumatic life events a Severe symptoms of anxiety and distress that were not present before the trauma b Reliving the trauma and becoming numb to the world c Experiences intense survivor guilt Causes oz Biological factors overreactive autonomic nervous system overreactive NT systems involved in emotional responses overreactive right hemisphere sites involved in emotions 51 oz Psychological factors gt Neurotic anxiety occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego s defenses and explode into consciousness oz Cognitive factors maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs exaggerated misinterpretations of stimuli o3 Behavioral perspective role of learning classical conditioning after traumatic experiences gt Observational learning operant conditioning motivation to reduce or escape anxiety oz Sociocultural factors gt Culturebound disorders occur only in certain locales For example anorexia Somatoform Disorders oz Somatoform disorders physical complaints or disabilities that suggest a medical problem but have no known biological cause oz Munchausen Syndrome the most severe type of factitious disorder Ppl w this syndrome deliberately produce or exaggerate symptoms in several ways gt Factitious disorder condition where person acts as if they have an illness by acting out those symptoms This is different from Somatoform disorders bc it is INTENTIONAL 3 Types 1 Hypochondriasis ppl become alarmed about any physical symptom they detect and are convinced that they have or are about to have a sedousiHness 2 Pain Disorder intense pain that is either out of proportion to whatever medical condition the person might have or for which no physical basis can be found 3 Conversion Disorder serious neurological symptoms such as paralysis loss of sensation or blindness suddenly occur a Nothing physically preventing them but the brain stops them from experiencing it the brain is basically blocking sight or whatever sense b Predisposition may involve a combination of biological and psychological vulnerabilities i Genetics environmental learning etc Somatoform patients are also very suggestible August 13th 2015 Personality Disorders oz Final exam will have 4050 point be on the last 3 chapters gt Lots of identifying symptoms and seeing what people have gt Remaining 10 points will be general social stuff will be on there 52 Dissociative Disorders oz Dissociative disorders breakdown of normal personality integration gt Le when you re listening to someone talk and realize that you didn t hear a part of all of what someone said talking out loud to yourself staring off into space and thinking of nothing for awhile 3 Forms 1 Dissociative Psychogenic amnesia a person responds to a stressful event w extensive but selective memory loss 2 Dissociative Psychogenic fugue a person loses all sense of personal identity gives up his or her customary life wanders to a new faraway location and establishes a new identity 3 Dissociative identity disorder formerly MPD 2 or more separate personalites coexist in the same person Theodes oz Traumadissociation theory development of new personalities occurs in response to severe stress 393 Sociocognitive theory development of new personalities occurs in response to ppl s expectation and beliefs shaped by psychotherapy and culture Mood Disorders oz Mood disorders depression and mania There is a high comorbidity involving anxiety and mood disorders 393 Learned helplessness the belief that there is nothing individuals can do to prevent or cope w negative events Type 1 Depression oz Depression most feel temporary depression at some point typically due to a traumatic or sad event It typically fades after the event has passed 25 30 of college undergrads suffer from depression oz Major depression an intense depressed state that leaves the person unable to function effectively oz Dysthymia a less intense form of depression that has less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning 393 Symptoms gt Emotional symptoms sadness hopelessness anxiety misery inability to enjoy gt Cognitive symptoms thoughts negative cognitions about self world and future gt Somatic symptoms physical loss of appetite lack of energy sleep difficulties weight lossgain 53 gt Motivational symptoms loss of interest lack of drive difficulty starting anything oz Episodespatterns of depression gt Initial episode typically lasts 5 10 months wo treatment gt 3 typical patterns 40 won t experience another episode 50 will experience a recurrence about 3 years after the initial episode 10 will remain chronically depressed Type 2 Bipolar oz Bipolar disorder depression alternating w periods of mania gt Mania highly excited mood and behavior oz Symptoms of mania includegeneral euphoria failure to consider negative consequences hyperactivefrantic behavior irritableaggressive when questioned rapid speechlessened need for speech Tvoe 3 Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD oz SAD depressive episodes that display a seasonal pattern oz Symptomsweight gain lack of energy carbohydrate craving excessive sleep Factors of Mood Disorders oz Biological factors gt Underactivity of norepinephrine dopamine andor serotonin gt Bipolar disorder has a stronger genetic basis than unipolar depression gt Manic disorders may stem from an overproduction of the same neurotransmitters that are underactive in depression So when manic disorders are misdiagnosed as depression you are taking the exact medication that makes it worse oz Psychological factors personality based vulnerability can be created by early traumatic losses or rejections oz Cognitive processes gt Depressive cognitive triad negative thoughts concerning the world oneself and the future oz Sociocultural factors strong social support decreases the prevalence of depressive disorders Suicide 393 Suicide the willful taking of one s own life gt Women attempt suicide 3x more often But men at 3x more likely to succeed bc they choose more immediately lethal methods 54 Motives of suicide gt Desire to end ones life High lvls of depressionhopelessness More lethal than other suicide attempts Sometimes based on a desire to stop being a burden to others gt Manipulation of others Induces guilt in others dramatizes suffering Tends to use less lethal means and makes sure help is available Warning signs Verbalbehavioral threats to commit suicide Expressing hopelessness about the future Withdrawing from others or favorite activities Giving away treasured possessions Taking unusual risks passive suicide Having a detailed plan that involves a lethal method Substance use and abuse PEOPLE DON T COMMIT SUICIDE AT THE LOWEST POINT IN DEPRESSION Typically it s when ppl start getting better again where the risk for suicide increases Bc now they have more energy Suicide Prevention gt Talk about it w the person Provide social support and empathy gt Help the persona to consider positive future possibilities gt Stay w the person and help him or her to seek professional assistance VVVVVVV Schizophrenia Schizophrenia severe disturbances in thinking speech perception emotion and behavior gt It s a Psychotic disorder involves a loss of contact w reality and bizarre behaviors and experiences quotsplit brainquot Characteristics Misinterpreting reality Exhibiting disordered attention thought or perception Withdrawing from social interactions Communicating in strange or inappropriate ways Neglecting personal grooming Behaving in a disorganized fashion Symptoms gt Incoherent thinking mentally disorganized and confused quotword saladquot VVVVVV 55 gt Delusions false beliefs that are sustained in the face of evidence that normally would be sufficient to destroy them gt Hallucinations false perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality Auditory hallucinations are the most common 5 Types 1 Paranoid S delusions of persecution delusions of grandeur suspicion anxiety anger and possible hallucination 2 Disorganized S confusion and incoherence severe deterioration of adaptive behavior such as personal hygiene social skills and self care highly inappropriate emotional responses often appear silly and childlike 3 Catatonic S motor disturbances ranging from muscular rigidity to random or repetitive movements alternate bt stuperous states and agitated excitement a Waxy exibility limbs can be molded into positions that they will maintain for hours Undifferentiated S Residual S ppl who exhibited some of the symptoms previously but who are not currently exhibiting symptoms U39Ilgt 2 Main Categories of Symptoms 1 Positive bizarre behaviors such as delusions hallucinations and disordered speech and thinking quottoo much of somethingquot a Represent pathological extremes of normal processes excesses b Delusions are the most common 2 Negative absence of normal reactions a lack of emotional expression loss of motivation and an absence of speech De cits a Negative symptoms are associated w a poorer prognosis than positive symptoms Factors of S 393 Biological factors there is a strong genetic predisposition gt Closer relationship w someone schizophrenic increases the likelihood of developing S gt Brain abnormalities Neurodegenerative hypothesis destruction of neural tissue can cause S Mild to moderate brain atrophy and enlarged ventricles Abnormalities are more common in patients who exhibit neg symptoms oz Biochemical factors gt Dopamine hypothesis S symptoms are produced by over activity of the dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression motivated behavior and cognitive functioning 56 oz Psychological factors gt Psychoanalytic theorists S is a retreat from the unbearable stress and con ict It s an extreme form of regression gt Cognitive theorists Ss have a defect in the attentional mechanism that lters out irrelevant stimuli oz Environmental factors gt Stressful life events play an important role in the emergence of schizophrenic behavior oz Sociocultural factors gt Prevalence of schizophrenia is highest in lower socioeconomic classes gt Social causation hypothesis increased lvls of stress experienced by lowincome ppl gt Social drift hypothesis personal and occupational functioning deteriorates so ppl drift down the social ladder August 13th 2015 Personality Disorders oz Personality disorders stable ingrained in exible and maladaptive ways of thinking feeling and behaving gt 10 personality disorders with 3 clusters Dramatic and impulsive behaviors Anxious and fearful behaviors Odd and eccentric behaviors Antisocial Personalitv Disorder oz Antisocial personality disorder ppl who seem to lack a conscience Longstanding pattern of irresponsible or unlawful behavior that violates social norms gt Malefemale 31 gt Often appear intelligent and charming gt Failure to respond to punishment 393 Diagnosing gt Diagnostic criteria requires evidence of antisocial behavior before 15 Le habitual lying early and aggressive sexual behavior excessive drinking theft vandalism and chronic rule violations gt Cannot be diagnosed until the age of 18 oz Causes gt Biological factors there is a genetic predisposition dysfunction in brain structures that govern emotional arousal and behavioral selfcontrol neurological de cits in the prefrontal lobes so they re less easily startled 57 gt Psychological amp Environmental factors Described as ppl wo a conscience Inadequate identi cation w appropriate adult gures maybe the father is an alcoholic or something 0 Many come from abusive neglectful homes Failure to think aboutanticipate longterm negative consequences Have an impaired ability to develop conditioned fear responses when punished Borderline personalitv disorder Borderline personality disorder serious instability in behavior emotion identity and interpersonal relationships gt Occurs in 3 5 of the population affects 23 of women gt Very compulsive had a habit of running away when young and getting into ghts Symptoms gt Emotional dysregulation an inability to control negative emotions in response to stressful life events gt Intense and unstable personal relationships they d threaten suicide to manipulate other ppl gt Chronic feelings of extreme anger loneliness and emptiness gt Engaging in impulsive selfdestructive behaviors arm full of self in icted scars Causal factors gt Chaotic personal histories gt Splitting failure to integrate positive and negative aspects of another person s behavior into a coherent whole For example sometimes your friendsfamily do things we like and we don t like We have the ability to accept the whole person but these ppl focus only on the negative gt Genetic predisposition as well gt Abnormality in NT systems or brain areas that regulate emotions Childhood Disorders 1 ADHD more common in boys than girls and occurs in 7 10 of American children a lt s potentially overdiagnosedovermedicated b Problems typically persist into adolescenceadulthood c 2 clusters of symptoms inattention and hyperactivityimpulsivity d Causes are unknown i Genetic environmental factors con rmed ii But no consistent differences in brain activity structures or NTs have been detected 2 Autistic spectrum disorder ASD 58 a Autistic disorder a long term disorder characterized by extreme unresponsiveness to others poor communication skills and highly repetitive and rigid behavior patterns b Asperger s disorder a milder form of autism c Affects 1 in every 88 children 80 are boys It typically appears by age 3 3O 80 remain severely disabled into adulthood and can t live independently d Symptoms i Lack of social responsiveness to others ii Language and communication difficulties iii Becoming extremely upset at minute changes in routine iv Repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns and interests v Some develop savant abilities e Causes i Clear biological factors clear diff bt boys and girls anomalies in the structurefunctioning of the brain non autistic family members often display unusual personality characteristics Psychotherapy o3 Psychotherapy a psychological intervention designed to help ppl resolve emotional behavioral and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives gt Goal help ppl live happier and more productive lives Wants to help with Mental health difficulties Coping w important events Marital problemsfamily problems Workrelated problems Achieving insight the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that underlie problems gt Therapy sign of coping Eclectic Psychotherapy personalizing tools to individuals 0 How can a therapist develop insight gt Free association client reports what enters mind wo censorship or ltering gt Dream analysis disguised clues to unconscious gt Interpretation explanations Psychodynamic Techniques 59 oz Resistance defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy which can appear in many diff forms gt There are signals that anxietyarousing material is being approached oz Transference the client responds to the analyst as if she or he were an important gure from the client s life gt This is the most important process in psychoanalysis gt Therapist becomes the focus of emotions Positive intense affection dependency or love Negative anger fear etc 393 Interpretation any statement by the therapist that is intended to provide the client w insight into his or her behavior or dynamics sychodynamic Therapies 393 Interpersonal therapy focuses almost exclusively on clients current relatonships with important ppl in their lives gt Most useful in treating depression Humanistic Psychotherapies oz Humanists view ppl as capable of consciously controlling their behaviors oz Person centered approach gt Unconditional positive regard therapist shows that heshe genuinely cares about and accepts the client wo judgment or evaluation gt Empathy willingness and ability to view the world through the client s eyes gt Genuineness consistency bt the way the therapist feels and the way heshe behaves o3 Gestalt Therapy by Frederick Perls goal is to bring the client s feelings wishes and thoughts into immediate awareness gt Makes the client quotwholequot again gt Often carried out in groups gt Active roleplay of different selfaspects Empty chair technique if you wanna talk to your professor you sit facing an empty chair and tell the person how you feel then switch Cognitive Therapies 0 Focus on the role of irrational and selfdefeating thought patterns gt Therapists help clients discover and change problematic cognitions gt Thought patterns are not unconscious but they can be automatic and ingrained o3 Rationalemotive therapy by Albert Ellis ABCD Model gt A activating agent B belief system C consequences D disputing gt Clients are introduced to commonlyheld irrational beliefs O 90 60 gt Homework assignments help clients analyze and change sef statements Cognitive therapy by Aaron Beck goal is to point out errors of thinking and logic gt Help clients identify and reprogram automatic thoughts gt Help clients realize that their thoughts cause their maladaptive emotional reactions Behavior Therapies Behavioral approaches believe that gt Maladaptive behaviors are not merely symptoms of underlying problems gt Problem behaviors are learned in the same ways normal behaviors are gt Maladaptive behaviors can be unlearned by applying classical conditioning operant conditioning and modeling principles Exposure approach treat phobias thru exposure to the feared CS in the absence of the UCS gt Response prevention is used gt Highly effective for reducing anxiety responses gt Controversial bc intense temporary anxiety is created by the treatment Virtual reality the use of computer technology to create higth realistic virtual environments gt They evoke the same reactions as a comparable realworld environment gt Used to treat anxiety disorders Systematic desensitization a learningbased treatment for anxiety disorders gt Counterconditioning a new response that is incompatible w anxiety is conditioned to the anxietyarousing CS gt Steps Patient s trained in voluntary muscle relaxation Construction of stimulus hierarchy 10 20 evenly spaced Iow anxiety to highanxiety scenes are presented to the person Aversion therapy therapist pairs an attractive CS w a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition an aversion to the CS gt Le alcohol pedophiles gt it s more effective if paired w a comprehensive treatment program Behavior modi cation techniques that apply operant conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a speci c behavior gt Token economy strengthens desired behaviors thru systematic application of positive reinforcement Third Wave 0 9 Acceptance and commitment therapy ACT 61 gt Teaches clients to just notice gt Reduces emotional impact of thoughts gt Develop strategies to work toward life commitments o3 Dialectical behavior therapy DBT treatment for borderline personality disorder gt lncludes elements from many types of therapies gt Goal is to reduce selfdestructive behaviors Biological Therapy 393 Drug therapies most commonly used biological interventions gt Psychopharmacology the study of how drugs affect cognitions emotions and behavior 393 Criticisms of drug treatments gt As much as 90 of effects may be placebo effects gt Doesn t quotcurequot the disorder just suppresses them gt Doesn t teach coping and problem solving skills gt High relapse rate and aversive quotdiscontinuation syndromequot 3 kinds of druos 1 Antipsychotic drugs decrease action of dopamine reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia little effect on negative symptoms a Can produce tardive dyskinesia w prolonged use 2 Antianxiety drugs reduce anxiety wo affecting alertness or concentration Slows down excitatory synaptic activity in the nervous system a Multiple side effects short term memory loss 3 Antidepressant drugs have 3 classes a Tricyclics b Monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors c Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRls oz Electroconvulsive therapy patient is given a sedative and a muscle relaxant the nplaced on a padded mattress where electrodes are attached to the scalp gt Effects can be immediate but nobody knows why it works gt Used primarily in patients w major depression who cannot take or don t respond to medication gt Criticisms Possibility of relapse is high Permanent memory loss and brain damage are possible oz Psychosurgery surgical procedures that remove or destroy brain tissue in an attempt to change disordered behavior gt Used rarely as a very last resort Known as a lobotomy
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