Chapter 6 Memory and Learning
Chapter 6 Memory and Learning KIN 2332
Popular in Motor learning and control
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Delia Navarro on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 2332 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by BOYLE, JASON B in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Motor learning and control in Kinesiology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 6 Memory and Learning October 6 2015 What is memory gt Persistence of information over time 0 Capacity of Learning from experiences gt No single center for memory 0 Compartmentalized in varies brain regions Ex how you put clothes on Cognitive based theories of memory gt Convergence centers 0 Components of a retrieved memory come together at a speci c location Top down control gt Hierarchical 0 Storage and retrieval processes 0 Schema Theory Dynamical system theories of memory Characteristics adaptable complex selforganization emergence Conditioned by environmental features Bottom up process Do not like to say our brain control everything we do Driven by environmental factors brain involved with memory synchronizes when being perceived when things are not perceived there is no harmony Declarative Memory System Memories concerning facts and events gt Semantic memory facts 0 Generalized knowledge about the world 0 Independently stored gt Episodic Memory events o Autobiographical o Context and Sequence related Ex where were you when 911 happened In 1950 HM Henry Molaison 19532008 0 Brain injury in childhood that lead him to suffer from seizures and doctors removed his hypothalamus from brain Stopping seizures but preventing new memories from forming Before HM everyone believed there was only Declarative Memory 0 HM could learn new Motor skills but no new memories Procedural Memory information relative to skill procedures 0 Information for all three domains of skills 0 Rule based system 39Doingquot of skill behaviors Automaticity Dual tasking Chocking under pressure 0 o o o Beilgk and Carr study Experts vs Novig Compared performance on 30 putt conditions quotHow should the gold putt be performed correctly quot Experts were superior quotPretend a friend walked in the room describe in great detail the last putt you just tookquot Novice were superior gt Experts controlled their movements through procedural memory gt Expertiseinduce amnesia declarative memory is blocked during automatic procedural skill Long Tern Expertmonitoring hypothesis What causes choking under pressure gt Trying to access Declarative memory during well learned procedural memory Stages of Memory Be aware of environment and respond effectively gt Be aware of what is in environment gt Decided what to do in response gt How to do what we decide upon These three essential functions are accomplished by memory Atkinson and Shiffrin Model Sensoryinput gt Sensor gt Short y Term Memor Memory AttentionampRehersal Storage Memory Retrival ensory Memory Organization prioritization and encoding of sensory information Registers 0 One for each sensory modality 0 Vision iconic register 0 Touch haptic register Most information entering sensory memory is ost ensory Memory information transferred from sensory memory Must have A39ITENTION to move from sensory store short term memory gt Limited capacity and time o Chunks magic number 72 o Grouping it together gt Only memory system we are consciously aware gt Working memory Long Term Memory LTM responsible for learning 2 Capacity is unlimited 2 Includes procedural sematic and episodic information oEncoding Rehearsal attention motivation Brain will never say it has had enough Enhancing long term Qnsolidation gt structural changes take time 24 to72 hours Factors in uencing consolidation gt Amount of practice attention motivation gt Scheduling and presentation of scheduling Primacy recency effects Learning greatest at beginning and at the end of practice what you hear rst and what you hear ast Von Restorft Effect exception to primary recency effect 0 Particular meaningful or dramatic fashion 0 Ex something meaningful happened in the middle it will stick Practice distribution effect shorter practice sessions across longer periods of time Priming effects Introduction of new information or skill before practice 0 Ex coach demonstrates how to do an action then has students do drills on set action Emphasizing location cues critical position points Sleeping on it 0 Procedural memories 0 Lack of suf cient sleep or quality sleep staying up late to study is pointless you will not recall almost anything if we wake up earl to study instead we recall more Why do we forget learned skills gt Forgetting Loss of or inability to retrieve information from memory 0 Trace decay theory Memory trace decays before permanent encoding in LTM not practiced enough 0 Interference Theory Memories in LTM long term memories interfere with one another Ineffective retrieval Retroactive inhibition new memories interfering with the retrieval of old Proactive inhibition old memories interfering with the retrieval of new Ex walking into a room for something and fretting why you went in then leaving remembering why you went in Strategies for reducing interference LSeparate similar skills within a practice schedule as far apart as practically possible in order to reduce the effects of interference A Prefer proactive rather than retroactive inhibition when presenting a new skill
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