Week Eight Notes: Bourbon Reforms and Abolition of Slave Trade
Week Eight Notes: Bourbon Reforms and Abolition of Slave Trade History 370
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 370 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. J. McCarthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see History of the Caribbean in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Week Eight Notes The Bourbon Reforms Continued and Enlightenment Abolition Study Soup Katie Albritton The Bourbon Reforms Continued Centralization Empire Re gain primacy in own empire Reaffirm socioracial hierarchy Establish huge militias To enforce race hierarchy sti e Creoles Create Viceroysalties of New Granada Colombia and la Plata Buenos Aires Replace corregidores inspectors appointed as needed with intendants permanent inspectors Modeled on French intendants Middlelevel officials loyal to the crown Collect taxes keep check on higher officials Leyes de Indias Codify laws Most issued piecemeal as an edict c dulas Upgrade of ME Siete Partidas and 16th century imperial laws End encomienda 1720 Standardize town planning Plaza Mayor w 8block grid of streets Standardization of architecture Reforming Trade and Economy Goal Guided enlightened planned economy Sociedades de los Amigos del Pais Foster cocoa in Venezuela Companies to promote trade Establish new companies Royal Philippine Company Did not last very long Open additional Caribbean ports Trade in Atlantic and eventually with other countries Monopoly ends soon Authorize intracolonial trade Lima and Acapulco trade authorized Try to halt smuggling over the Andes Creation of Viceroyalty of la Plata Raise alcabala sales tax and collect rigorously Effects and Backlash Enlightened government for awhile Back on track as world power for awhile Vast wealth silver cocoa cigars Increased Creole resentment Tupac Amaru rebellion Merchant middle class developing But no land reform so no large middle class Stirrings that will lead to colonial revolts Mexico Bolivia Venezuela etc Abolition of the Slave Trade not Slavery itself Background definition Enlightenment Inspired largely by the Scientific Revolution Elitist movement among literati Use of reason Bacon inductionscientific method Descartes deduction I think therefor I am Natural laws Newton gravity fun fact Newton was interested in Alchemy Exist at all times everywhere under all circumstances Seek laws for Economics Governance Societal interaction Awareness of establishing modernity Imitate British government style fairest most reasonable and representative Enlightenment Economics Increasing talk of free trade GrotiusDutch advocate freedom of seas Mercantilism inadequate Violated brazenly Becoming less profitable Competition for companies New companies Other nations Smugglers Entrepreneurs Inaccess to some goods Adam Smith Wealth of Nations 1776 Invisible Hand control marketplace Will run well if the governments would stop interfering Malaspina Spanish explorer advocates free trade for Spain despite success of Bourbon Reforms Philosophy Religion Society Science Mainly anticlerical Development of social philosophical and scientific ideas and laws Thomas Hobbes Leviatan life brutal people brutal and greedy Favors absolutism Edmund Halley Meteorologist investor Comet return predicted Jean Jacques Rousseau Social contract Noble savage European arrival in Tahiti People are cruel due to industrialization naturally nice to one another Denis Diderot Encyclopedie Voltaire Anticlerical witty prolific Jesuit education put in prison in 1720s Attended Newton39s funeral enamored with Newton and his ideas Challenged idea that everything happened for the best Cesare Beccaria Prison reform Torture illogical ineffective Not honest confession People can be rehabilitated and are not naturally criminal Chemistry Stahl phlogiston Big scientific topic started as Alchemy Burn something and add levity to it try to describe combustion Lavoisier Dalton define element Instead of four elements Earth Fire Water Air more Governance Why should there be government at all John Locke Essays on government Natural rights Government exists only to protect rights Essay on Human Understanding Tabula Rasa CharlesLouis Baron de Montesquieu De I 39Esprit des Lois Advocates representative republic Large in uence on the formation of the United States Enlightenment Opposition to Slavery Nicolas Marquis de Condorcet Slavery illogical Expensive Sullies human dignity Slaves and slave owners being sullied Dirty immoral person owns slaves William Blackstone Slavery repugnant to reason All men are created equal Montesquieu US Declaration of Independence Fr Declaration of the Rights of Man National sovereignty Hobbes Locke Rousseau Montesquieu A nation should be ruling themselves not by foreigners Opposition to Slavery Religion 18th century revival Moravians Pietists Methodists Favor working classes Clapham Sect Evangelicals in Church of England Wilberforce Macaulay John Stephen Thomas Clarkson Quakers Pacifists Send investigators to West Africa See how slave trade operates Circulate pamphlets Not welcome in England Unitarians new former Congregationalists come on board Freedom loving antitrinitarian Economic Sugar profits declining Prices down peak prices in 1670s Commodity more common Expensive to replace slaves Slave population not reproducing Poor diet men dying early abortion Maintenance held to be costly Both slaves and sailors die in Middle Passage 1820s 20 on ships die from disease Free Sugar cheaper Commodity prices going down Buy more cheaply from India etc Proving that slave labor expensive Other investments esp industry Eric Williams Capitalism and Slavery 1944 End of slave trade all about economics Neglect of Sugar Infrastructure UK especially Absentee landlords Government not prioritizing Empire favors India Jewel in the Crown East India Company prominent Increased presence in SE Asia Singapore Malaysia Brunei Hong Kong Spice trade Competing Free Sugar Producers India Hawai39i Heavy English interest in 1850 Australia northern Worked by Melanesians Louisiana French sometimes Spanish colony later beet sugar Germany Odium Against the Slave Traders Guilt catches up With Slavers Society Not really among planters Huge representatives in Parliament Debts to slavers often unpaid Many opt out Voyage is terrible Some find religion John Newton Wrote Amazing Grace Slave Resistence Maroons inspire Mackandal rising Haiti 1758 Raids on plantations Burned at stake Captain Francois Tacky Jamaica 1760 Plans to kill all Whites Defeated by UK and maroons Cuffy Dutch Guiana 1763 Wants black state Crushed by Dutch and UK Nonconforming preachers Baptists Convert slaves Become advocates leaders End Slave Trade rather than Slavery Life liberty property Property sacred in UK Fences claims to America Becomes fetishized Right to property if they improve the property Slaves are property Parliament can regulate commerce Traditional mercantilism permitted Valid even as free trade sneaking in There is no right to seize property Chattels Slaves seen as movable property Much easier and cheaper than emancipation Compensation would be expected To slave owners not to slaves Organized Opposition to Slave Trade Groups begin to work together Quakers Clapham Sect Methodists Disseminate information Focus on immorality of slavery Cruelty Dissolution of families Decide to work through Parl re trade Legislation Bill filed Wilberforce Member of Parliament Clapham Sect 1791 1793 1794 Passes House of Commons 1796 Fails in Lords Planter Lobby Opposition to Radicalism American Revolution French Revolution Haitian Revolution Fear throughout the Atlantic UK invades Haiti to try to stop it Edmund Burke Conservative English writer Revolution unnatural French Illogical Re ections on the Revolution in France Patriarchy Favored formaspect of conservatism Peasants as animals need patriarchy Rule by common people naturally chaotic cruel Parliament Irish Problem Irish always recalcitrant Cromwell repression cruel Lost in Glorious Revolution battles Penal Laws 1691 Catholicism outlawed No Catholic barristers lawyer or members of Parliament No Catholic landowners No schooling for Catholics Possible attempt to dissolve Irish Parliament Make Irish more like the English Planter lobby Rich proslavery Jamaicans in Parliament Would naturally oppose emancipation Opposed abolition of slave trade Passage Prime Minister Pitt supports abolition Various alternatives restrictions Bills filed 17961806 Attempt to better regulate trade make it healthier so less people die Pitt out of office 1801 over Ireland Act of Union of 1801 1807 Slave Trade ended by law Policing encouraging other nations Police the Atlantic West Africa squadron USA ends trade 1807 France Netherlands end trade 1814 Spain Brazil continue Many slaves taken by Spain to Brazil Lots of illegal slavers Newport Rhode Island Slave port lot of smuggling Clipper ships to outrun UK navy Pinnacle of sailing technology in 1820s1840s Don39t carry as much cargo but are narrow and fast The Atlantic Revolution Significance to Caribbean History Atlantic Revolution US independence French Revolution Haitian Risingindependence Latin American independence Transforms Atlantic World Caribbean colonies big in economic significance international diplomacy Losing a little to SE Asia in these regards Independent United States succeeds in the region Slave rebellion succeeds in Haiti Tremendous fear of slave rebellions Haiti as independent nation Pearl of the Atlantic destroyed Haiti subsumes Santo Domingo for awhile Haiti isolated but free Idea of modernity progress Turn from old way of looking backward to better times Look forward for better times Ideological background Enlightenment generally Sovereignty Right to national selfdetermination rule Individual rights Noble Savage Pure gentle natureloving The West is corrupt and cruel Beginnings of free trade ideologies Creole identities European people born in new world Trying for equality with the old world Economic background Profits from extraction trade Colonies created to serve the motherland Restrictive mercantilist policies Policies increasingly opposed Entrepreneurs smugglers Incipient industry making England richer Earth as source of wealth Incipient industry allowing discussion of labor issues Incipient industry fostering discussion of the nature and origin of wealth Physiocrats v Mercantilists Controlling nature Gardening is big manipulating nature to make it more beautiful Buildup to American Revolution Molasses Act Quartering soldiers during 7Year39s War Taxation to help pay for war Stamp Act 1765 Townsend Duties All official papers must be stamped which you pay for Townsend More taxes on Sugar Committees of Correspondence Minute Men Ready to fight if it should come to that Audacity desperation Creole identity Boston Massacre British soldiers fire into crowd Five people died Boston Tea Party 1773 Throwing tea into harbor after increase in tax on tea Many dress as women to rile up others and disguise themselves Military governance in Boston Continental Congress Buildup to revolution many see as inevitable nothing is inevitable except death and taxes Invite Barbados to join revolution Barbados adamantly refuses American Revolution Continental Army v regulars Lexington Concord Declaration of Independence Equality freedom Doesn39t mention slaves or women Help from France Colonials retake NYC English surrender in VA Yorktown General Cornwallis Treaty of Paris 1783 UK recognizes States as independent American Independence the Young Republic New nation new principles Articles of Confederation Constitution Bill of Rights Build up navy Rebuild trade Establish identity Changing spelling of some words national parks etc Expand westward Poor treatment of slaves Native Americans Effects on Caribbean US cannot trade with Jamaica London Tramp traders in Spanish French Caribbean Samuel Perkins in Haiti 1790 Ideas of independence in uence slaves Creoles Some migration to USA much more later Some already happening US expansion eyes Caribbean territories Latin American Revolutions follow soon Buildup to the French Revolution Debts from Louis XIV wars Nobles clergy untaxed Physiocrats say wealth comes from the landowners Therefore no alternative plans Repeated militarynaval losses to the English Bad harvests mid 1780s rare in France 23 years Finance ministers come and go Assembly of the Notables refuses taxation Nobles refuse to tax themselves Tax farmers despised Get commission to collect taxes and pay some of it to the government Keep whatever is left over Estates General summoned Had not met since 1614 French Revolution Voting controversy in Estates General Oath of the Tennis Court Fall of the Bastille 3rd Estate becomes national Assembly Creates constitution Declines then welcomes black delegates Purges moderates executes king and queen Reign of Terror RobespierreCommittee of Public safety Enormous violence MR executed Citizen army war goes very well Napoleon emerges from chaos Conquers most of Europe Effects on the Caribbean Legacy of people changing the government Much more so than American Revolution Inspires modern republics Beginning of historical modernity Enough chaos to permit Haitian rising independence Common people still thought unfit to rule Violent uneducated Triumph of the bourgeoisie in Europe Final triumph of England over France Eventual allies