Week six notes
Week six notes HDF 302-02
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Roosa on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 302-02 at Central Michigan University taught by Linda Traum in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Infant and Child Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Infant and Toddler Development Overview Physical and motor development Perceptual development Cognitive development Emotional development Family and society 1 Physical and motor development a Newborn sleep states i 32 weeks REM and nonREM ii 38 weeks several sleep states iii Newborns sleep 17 hours a day day and night sleep iv 3 or 4 months infants sleep more at night b Waking states i Newborns 2 modes of responses to stimulation Date 1051510715 1 Orienting heightened alertness that includes behavioral localization towards the source of stimulation 2 Defense behavioral action that involves withdrawal from stimulation source ii Newborns will orient to stimuli of moderate intensity and complexity soft talking holding rocking etc c Crying states Date 1051510715 i Crying is organized rhythmic activities 1 Different cries different body responses and sounds ii Frequency increases between birth and two months then decrease 1 Infants cry more when parents are slower to respond to them iii Colic is crying in which 1 Infant cries at least 3 hours a day on at least 3 days per week for at least 3 successive weeks 2 Parents find the crying is intensive 3 Infant is otherwise normal 4 Infant is relativity unresponsive to soothing and feeding iv Causes of colic 1 Unknown 2 Not caused by digestive problem sympathetic nervous system arousal or cortisol levels v Factors related to colic 1 Mothers who were highly stressed during pregnancy increases the chance of a colicky baby 2 Colicky infants are more likely to have sleep problems and to be inattentive emotionally reactive sensitive to touch food and other stimulation at 3 and 8 years vi Adults perceive crying as an index of distress and they try to figure out the source 1 Nonparents are as responsive as parents d e 1 Date 1051510715 2 Levels of arousal and responsiveness are equal for men and women vii Child abusers show greater arousal and more annoyance at cries then nonabusers Soothing infants i Nonnutritive sucking NNS immediately soothes ii Swaddling reduces mother movement and startles keeps the infant calm for long pe ods iii Massage enhances alertness sleep growth and reduces stress and crying iv Rocking can calm or put infants to sleep v Continuous sound can be calming esp when moderately loud and of low frequency eg Singing lullabies humming Newborn states i Newborn state is important 1 Body needs periods of tranquility and rest to consolidate resources for growth 2 Attention to the environment depends on a stressfree state of quiet alertness 3 State regulates that types of interactions newborns have with her adult care givers Re exes i Reflexes 1 Semiautomatic behaviors 2 Look the same every time they are triggered 3 Have to run course once triggered ii Purpose 2 3 Date 1051510715 1 Primitive forms of orienting behavior a Rooting sucking amp grasping 2 Primitive defensive reactions a Eg the Moro reflex reaction to cloth on face 3 elementary coordinated for later adaptive and voluntary movements a stepping crawling swimmers reflex 4 no clear function a Babinski reflex lack of reflex may indicate brain neurological damage iii Disappear by about 6 months g Sucking i Crucial reflex for survival changes over time becomes more voluntary h Growth i Arms and hands are among the least controlled parts of the body Perceptual development a Perception b Ecological perception experience that relies on direct perception Cognitive development a Classical conditioning possible when the unconditioned stimulus UCS evokes a rewarding natural response such as a sweet taste b Operant conditioning once infants learn the connection between their behavior amp a reinforcement they can signal their preferences using sucking rate or head turn c Date 1051510715 Habituation is the decline in strength of responding after repeating the same stimulus dishabituation is renewed interest i Newborns motor and heart rate responses have been found to habituate to auditory stimuli visual stimuli and tactile stimuli ii Habituation can also be shown in premature newborns and even in infants born without a brain cortex anencephalic 4 New born imitation a b c Studies i Newborns matched moving objects ii One found imitation of surprise happy and sad facial expresions iii Large variety of replication iv Wide individual differences Emergent self i Newborn imitation they can decipher their movements from another person s movements ii Differential rooting can tell if they are touched by someone else iii Sense of self sameness overtime in behavior feelings states of arousal Summary i Limited simple forms of learning memory habituationimitation selfawareness ii Early learning are memory are fundamental to survival iii Newborns prefer familiar sights sounds tastes and feelings not stressed or chaHenged Date 1051510715 5 Emotionaldevelopment a Infants can feel many things i They can feel distress contentment disgust interest and surprise ii Savor sweet iii They cry thrash stiffen their bodies when distressed iv Interestsurprise with faces moving objects or social interactions 6 Family and society a Psychological i Attachment the maintenance of mutual proximity over time ii Bonding skintoskin contact immediately after birth between mother and infant iii Social psychological component that may form the basis of later interpersonal communication and attachment 1 Early feeding patterns precede later social discourse 2 Animated adult faces and brightly colored objects prolong periods of alertness 3 The duration of parentinfant facetoface play and infant attention gradually increases over first two months b Fathers i Studies of largescale national samples show that fathers spend 2035 as much time as mothers in direct infant care ii Men s ability to participate in parenting tasks depends on social support they get especially from partner iii More involved fathers are the more involved they become Date1051510715 iv Parenting occurs within family system Facts i First time parents seem more hesitant but this does disappear after several months ii First born newborns receiver more caregiving interaction