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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandra Miranda on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Themes of Psychological Science Mind consists of Perception memories thoughts amp feelings Behavior consists of Our actions amp What we re capable of doing Cognitive consists of Think remember amp make decisions Separable or Inseparable gtTheory of Dualism o Descartes o The soul is separate from the body gtIntrospection o Wundt 0 Studies consciousness I Looking into one s own mind feelings etc gtStructuralism o Titchener 0 First school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components gtFunctionalism 0 William James 0 Examines function of mind as it adapted to experience and enVironment gtEVolutionary Theory 0 Darwin 0 Adaptation Natural Selection Survival of the fittest gtGestalt Theory 0 Wertheimer o Conscious experience different from sum of its parts 39 Gestalt theory seeks to describe a whole experience 0 Perception is subjective gtPsychoanalysis o Freud o Helps people understand themselves relationships and how they behave in the world 39 unconsciousness Brief overview Behaviorism Watson amp Skinner Humanistic Rogers amp Maslow Gestalt Wertheimer amp Kohler Cognitive Miller amp Neisser Psychoanalytical Freud Social Kurt Lewin Scientific Methods in Psychology Scientific inquiry is more objective 0 Purpose what when why of behavior and mental processes 0 Want to know that things exist 0 When they come to exist 0 Why they exist The scientific method is more of a systematic procedure 0 Empirical measureable seeks reasoning 0 Let s reality speak for itself 0 Confirms disconfirms 3 Main Types of Research in Psychology 1 Descriptive Studies a Observing and classifying behavior i Objective explain behavior 1 Naturalistic and participant behavior ii Disadvantages 1 Observer bias 2 Experimenter expectancy effect 3 Hawthorne effect subjects change or improve their behavior because they know they re being watched 2 Correlation Studies a Examine How Variables are Related i Objective examines how variables are naturally correlated ii Disadvantages 1 Third variable problems 2 Directionality problem can t determine which variable caused changes 3 Just stupid correlations a Sales in ice creamincrease in drowning deaths b Time Frame of ObservationalCorrelational Studies i Crosssectional 1 Participants observed at one point in time ii Longitudinal 1 Participants studied amp measured repeatedly across time 3 Experimental Research a Allows the examination of causality i Independent manipulated variable ii Dependent measured variable b Experimental group Control group c Disadvantages i Confound anything other than the independent variable that affects a dependent variable d Random Sampling i Critical for research 1 Generalizes findings from sample of individuals to the population of people beyond the study ii Random sampling and random assignment 5 Basic Data Collection Methods Observe tech case studies Ask participantsSelfreport Response performance Measuring biological activity bodybrain Using animal models OOOOO RCSDOIISG performance 0 Reaction time 0 Response accuracy 0 Stimulus Judgments Bodybrain activity can be measured directly via biological sampling 0 Non semi and invasive biological sampling 0 Placenta blood saliva etc Biopsvchologv CNS amp Brain Nervous System 0 Controls what we Think Feel amp Do Basic Components 0 Neurons 0 They Receive Integrate amp Transmit information to Nervous System 0 Central Nervous System 0 Composed of Brain amp Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Composed of Somatic Nervous System amp Autonomic Nervous System Nerve cells power electrical impulses and communicate through chemical signals 3 Basic Phases 0 Reception chemical signals received by neighboring neurons 0 Integration incomings signals assessed 0 Transmission signals passed Neurons can respecialize Aging has NO effect on development of neurons Types of Neurons o Sensory neurons 0 Afferent Toward Brain I Detects information 0 Motor neurons 0 Efferent From Brain I Direct muscles to contract or relax o Interneurons 39 Communicate Within local or shortdistance circuits Neurotransmitters In uence on Mental ActivitV amp Behavior Drugs amp toxins alters neurotransmitters action 0 Agonist enhance action 0 Antagonists inhibit action How do neurons communicate Neurotransmitters cross synapse and bind With receptors in postsynaptic neurons Neurotransmitters and Their E ects Name Primary Function Locations Receptors Notes Muscle control One of the most common A mem TV Neuromuscular Nicotinic very w StUd39ed39 A major cetylcholme formation junctions CNS muscarinic player in memory sensory response 39 Imbalances cause Excitatory twitching or paralysis 2353th Most antidepressants contra mood mimic the effect of Semtonm regulat39ion Gut CNS 5HT serotonin Most narcotics apatite S39 ep affect its release or muscle control rethake Reward pathways Imb lances caus Dopamine cognition Hypothalamus 33quot gg 03 Pafk39 5 hquot539 coc 39ng and voluntary motion opiates ave a Slgnl cant effect on Its release Fight or Flight response increased heart rate increased Adrenal Produced from Dopamine Norcpinephrine glucose in medulla Andrenergic in the adrenal glands on bloodstream kidneys increased oxygen to brain and muscles Able to cross the blood Precursor to brain barrier making it an LDOPA dopamine Hypothalamus NA excellent pharmaceutical for treatment of Parkinsons or depression Tryptophan 2ng to Blood NA essential amino acid Mediates muscle tone GABAA Receptors susceptible to GABA Inh39b39ts CNS Bram GABAB alcohol which creates CNS depression Spinal Cord Glycine Inhibits Signals Brainstem NMDA amino aCId Blood Pressure amino add39 Win Tyramine regulation CNS Kidney TA1 neurotransmitter that is largely not understood Longterm NMDA Glutamate potentiation CNS PNS others Most common memory Brain Structure amp Function Sulci Grooves bwtn fold Gyri Outward folds of the brain Brain Stem Basic programs of survival Cerebellum Essential for movement Subcortical Structure controls emotions and basic drives Cerebral cortex Underlies complex Prefrontal cortex concerned With social phenomas o Phineas Gage injury resulted in disturbances in ability to get along With others 0 Lobotomy damaging of prefrontal cortex How Brain communicates With our body 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic Nervous System I Transmits sensory signals To amp From Central Nervous System 0 Autonomic Nervous System I Regulates body s internal environment by stimulating glands Autonomic Nervous System o Sympathetic division 0 Prepares body for Action Fight or Flight 0 Parasympathetic division 0 Returns body to normal resting state Endocrine system communicates through hormones under Central Nervous System s control 0 Communicative network that in uences thoughts behavior amp actions Neural activity causes hypothalamus to secrete releasing factor 9 pituitary gland in order to release hormones Pituitary Gland Master Gland governs release of hormones
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