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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Week 6 Book Notes Chem 141 Prof Chapter 14 How are Masses Related in Chemical Charge Pa rt 1 10515 141 How are the Particle and Mass Related in a Chemical Change Stoichiometry Given a macroscopic quantity of one species before and after a chemical change you can find the quantity of a second species What are the Relationships Among the Number of Particles in a Chemical Change 0000 0 0 COO The per relationship is a conversion factor between molecules Use masses or the other macroscopic qualities to convert You can use Avogadro s number to convert to particles Use grams to convert to mass Mass molar mass is grams Mole What are the Relationships Among Masses in a Chemical Change Need to start with the reaction equation and what your conversion factors will between moles and quantities of the given and wanted substances Use the starting steps write balanced equation and determine conversion factors Mass of given moles of given Moles of wanted mass of wanted Procedure Not all of these steps are always needed sometimes you will only need to go to moles or start from moles Chapter 15 How are Masses Related in Chemical Change Part 2 10715 151 What is the Mass Relationship in a Chemical Change when a Reactant is in Limited Supply Limiting reactant the reactant that is completely used up by the reaction Excess reaction the amount of the reaction which is still left over after the reaction is complete The product is limited by the number of moles of the limiting reactant How are Limiting Reactant Questions answered 0 More complicated when the mass is expressed Week 6 Book Notes Chem 141 Prof Assume a particular condition You need to identify the limiting reactant Find the amount of product that is produced by both of the reactants Limiting reactant will always yield the smaller amount of the product 0 You can use number of moles to find the weight of the compound 0000 0 Procedure 0 I A the reactant that yields the smaller amount of product is the limiting reactant 0 B the smaller amount of product is the amount that will be formed when all of the limiting reactant is used up 0 2 Calculate the amount of excess reactant that is used by using that limiting reactant and converting it to the excess reactant 0 3 Subtract the amount of excess reactant that was given in the problem initially form the amount calculated in step two This di erence will give you the amount of the excess reactant that is unreacted Chapter 16 How are Masses Related in a Chemical Change Part 3 10915 161 What are the Mass Relationships in Chemical Change when the Product Yield is Imperfect 0 The yield is not the exact amount that is calculated 0 Ideal yield amount of product formed from the complete calculation 0 Actual yield measured quantity determined by experiment 0 act actual 0 Percentage yield actual yield expressed as a percentage of the ideal yield actual product yield 100 ideal product yield 0 Describes the product of the reaction rather than the reactant 0 Could be asked to calculate the percent of one item in a mixture 0 Could also be asked to find the quantity of the mixture or part of mixture 0 Solve using quantity algebra x parts of A x grams actual yield 100 parts of mixture I x Z 100 gramsideal product yield 162 How is Chemical Change used in Analysis of a Mixture 0 Experiments designed so that only substance of interests react 0 We don t have to be able to design them just interpret them 0 Convert from given to wanted using stoichiometry Week 6 Book Notes Chem 141 Prof x calculated mass 0 Find percentage given mass 100 Chapter 17 What Models Represent the Gaseous State 101215 171 How are Volume and Amount of Gas Related 0 Law of Combining Volumes reacting volumes are always in the ratio of small Whole number if the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure 0 Avogadro s law equal volumes of all gases at the same temp and pressure contain the same number of molecules 0 V CC 11 where 11 the number of moles 172 How are Pressure Volume Amount and Temperature of Gas Related 0 Volume of gas is directly proportional to kelvin temperature I Charles Law 0 What is the Ideal Gas Law 0 All three major gas laws combined 0 Avogadro s LaW V CC 11 0 Charles LaW V CC T O Boyles LaW V CC UP 0 Together create V CC nTP melding gas 0 Ideal Gas Law volume is directly proportional to the number of moles and the temperature While being indirectly proportional to pressure 0 Use algebra to solve for a missing value m mass 0 Can substitute molar mass for n n MM Molar Mass Phi MM 0 Can use the equation With molar mass to solve for the mass of a substance 173 What Microscopic Properties Characterize Gases 0 Gases can be compressed 0 Gases can expand Week 6 Book Notes Chem 141 Prof 0 Gases have low densities due to the large amount of space between each of the individual molecules 0 Gases may be xed in volume 0 Gases exert constant pressure on the walls of its container uniformly in all directions 174 What ParticulateLevel Model is Used to Explain Gas Properties 0 The Kinetic Molecular Theory came about from trying to account for gas properties 0 Ideal gas model allows us to be able to visualize the nature of gas by comparing it with a physical system we can see or imagine 0 I Gases consist of particulates moving at any given instant in a straight line 0 2 Molecules collide with each other and with the container walls without a loss of total kinetic energy 39 Loss in energy decrease in pressure 39 Drop in temperature energy drops decrease in pressure 0 3 Gas Molecules are very widely spread out 0 4 The actual volume of molecules is negligible compared to the space they occupy 0 5 Gas molecules are independent attractive forces between them are negligible 0 Ideal gas a model of a gas constructed of identical particles that occupy no sufficient volume and exert no forces on one another 0 The ve points above are the speci c characteristics of an ideal gas 175 What is the Relationship Among the Pressure of the Components of a Mixture of Gases 0 Vast space between molecules that allow gases to mix 0 One thing that changes when gasses are mixed I pressure goes up 0 Pressure from each gas are add together when gases mix to get the total pressure 0 Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture 0 Pp1p2p3 O P total pressure 0 pm partial pressure of each of the gasses 176 How can we Account for the Nonideality of a Real Gas 0 Consider two parts of what makes up an ideal gas 0 Actual volume of molecules are negligible comparted to the space they occupy 0 Gas molecules behave as independent particles attractive forces between them are negligible space 0 These are only approximate in real gases 0 Actual volume of molecules in gas are not entirely negligible 0 Molecules are attracted to each other Week 6 Book Notes Chem 141 Prof 0 The closer the molecules are to each other the more they are attracted they are to each other making them less independent 0 Real gasses approach the characteristics of a real gas at low pressure and high temperatures 2 n Pa V nbnRT 0 van de Waals Equation a constant adjusts for the attractive forces among the particles 0 b constant corrects for the volume of the molecules
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