Week Seven (5-9 Oct. 2015) Population and Community Ecology
Week Seven (5-9 Oct. 2015) Population and Community Ecology BIOL 2040
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Week Seven 59 Oct 2015 Population and Community Ecology TradeOffs and Life Histories organisms have finite resources therefore they won t have exponential population growth what energy organisms spend on reproduction they can t spend on other things example tradeoffs between parental care and survival European Kestrel males have lower survivorship because they expend energy taking care of young especially with large brood sizes many plants make many small seeds because of low survivorship ex Dandelion some plants produce moderate numbers of large seeds more energy for competitive environment ex Brazil Nuts KSelection densitydependent factorsselects for life history traits that are density sensitive usually biotic disease waste competition etc live around carrying capacity Logistic Growth Model iteroparity selected for traits geared towards slow population growth and longevitylater maturity like Monitor Lizards elephants large mammals large trees humans RSelection densityindependent selectionselect for traits that maximize reproductive output of the species usually abiotic natural disasters weather pollution etc semelparity short lifespan early maturity more offspring like insects many invertebrates and plants jellyfish dandelion Two General Questions about Population Growth 1 What are the environmental factors keeping populations from growing indefinitely 2 Why do some populations exhibit stability and are never still Population Size Changes 1 Densityindependent factors 2 Densitydependent factors Intrinsic factors like physiology K r Maturity Late Early Longevity Greater Lower Parental Care More Less Competition More Less Offspring Less More Offspring Size Bigger Smaller Community Ecologyspecies interactions ex Carrier crabs sea urchinsjelly fish carries camou agedefense on back receives benefits carrier crab protection from predators harmed possibly sea urchinjellyfish because they are an unwitting shield 0no benefitharm Biological Communitygroup of different species populations Who interact because they live close enough together ecologists define boundaries so they can study it ex Not Whole Great Barrier Reef but one section of it Community ecologists might study community in rotting log benthic community of a lake community of trees in Sequoia National Park Interspecific Interactions between two different species maymay not affect survivalreproduction of each species competition predation symbiosis mutualism commensalism parasitism facilitation predation is a interaction predator benefits and prey s fighting for life ex Wheel bug feeding on beetle Coevolutioncheetah became fast but gazelles learned to dart around also Classification of Community Interactions focused on predation competition etc historically however there are mutualism that re widespread Competition interaction occurs when species competing for limiting central resource something they need to survive on environment most resources are limited closely related species have similar resource needs Competitive Exclusion 2 species competing for limiting resource and one pushes the other out separately grown LGM Same Culture one caused extinction of the other Conclusion any 2 species competing for same resources drive others to extinction in absence of disturbance one species uses resources more efficiently will lead to extinction or drive the other species out CompetitionEcological Niches and Natural Selection Ecological niche sum of species use of biotic and abiotic resources if organism s address is its habitat then its profession is its niche from Odum Niche of the Tropical Tree Lizard activity periods diurnal vs nocturnal sizespecies of insects eaten diet these factors define the lizard s niche Using Niches to Define Competitive Exclusionif a pair of species have identical niches then they can t coexist long term However ecologically similar species can coexist in a community because natural selection Will cause their niches to differentiate enough so they re different using different resources or times to use resources Resource Partitioning differentiation of niches by natural selection Fundamental Niche range of conditions can live in Realized Niche What organisms exists in Character DisplacementSympatric Athopatric
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