SOCY 100 Notes Week 6
SOCY 100 Notes Week 6 SOCY 101 - 0201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Stavisky on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 101 - 0201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Nancy Forsythe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Chapter 8 Sexuality and Society Understanding Sexuality gt There are few areas of our daily life of which sexuality is not a part Sexuality is a theme found everywhere from on campus to at work to everywhere in the media sex industry gt Identity way in which an individual puts together and expresses the various aspects of themselves sex sexuality gender etc gt When understanding the aspects of a person s gender and sexual identity there are four spectrums of which we should be aware their gender identity gender expression biological sex and sexual orientation as illustrated by the diagram of the Genderbread Person The Genderbred Persomaa WWW Mam Gender is ne of those things Everyone thinks they understand but most people don39t like inception Gender isn39t binary itquots mm ei rhermr In many cases it39s lmrhfand 5 bit of thisa in Clash of that This nasty little guide 15 meant to be an appetizer for gender understancliing it39s okay if quotyou39re hungry for more In fact that39s the idea 271539 is unfair flr39lfiii iy x Fe 5 Wbman ness n Mainqnegs ll Haw gnu tr gtu hmquot ymr 39r rfrl tiff flux4 muzh 31 gig quot v2 139 quot diff with wet simmerii in h if 113fiuz39n EJETTTT The my gnu pf aewt gemquoter Emu151 jrflZquot drama JFLTf Efa cf l 1 we Lhzm l39u3r39539h are lntt39i39lr39iiirquot his2 quot in liE l39id39Equot Tim s 5 9 iEE 91 53 9E EslgQ ES QUESl Em1 EE1EE iv ii iviiviv i if I Attraction wi Bender Expressibn i Quip Feminine 1 MaSCUmIE a a a a a E a a a s a z a s a a s a z a z a z i m hw EXpi ESSiUi l I Biological Sex EX 1 FEmallETHESE g T H I n V n l he i 39iifll sz if 7quotuf39Fquot39 ii quotr E 3 39 quotquot39 3quot aquot quot395er u I V l I ill1 l L iji u39 EH J 3 I I I I a a I a a a a a a a a I I i r I l Sexually Attratted to i it 7 7 likbmeanemales thininitg quotin I Nubody I l t i H lMerLfMam n asmlirtity Fur a bigger hvi tE fried mere at httpirf39f39bi tawfganderhreaif it These 4 categories do not have to match up or overlap to be valid gt There is nothing about the binaries between men and women that is inherently different between them gt Once we ve begun to understand all of these categories of social inequality as a continuum and not as a natural binary we can call out the social construction of these categories and allow people to see them as they chose gt One of the most important terms coming from the rejection of the binary is intersectionality the crossing of multiple social differences in someone s identity gt people are simultaneously their gender race nationality class ability gt Intersection of sexuality with sex and class Ex Caitlin Jenner s experience as a trans woman is marked by her class status notably by her wealth and social connections Her experience is completely different from that of other trans people because she is only marginalized by her sex She risked public shaming but thanks to her status she was able to come out of it pretty okay gt On that note what does it mean to be transgender Cisgender Cisgendered people identify with the gender at which they were assigned at birth Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity and the gender at which they were assigned at birth Some transgender people are also transsexual they have undergone a change of primary sex characteristics in order to conform to the primary sex characteristics of the gender with which they identify Estimates suggest that 1 to 2 of every 1000 people are trans gt Furthermore what is sexual orientation What are the main sexual orientations in our society Sexual orientation a person s emotional and physical attraction to another person Though heterosexuality is the norm a significant share of the population identifies as homosexual and there are also people who identify as bisexual and therefore have no preference towards either gender There are also asexuals who do not feel sexual attraction at all that said asexual people can still have healthy sexless romantic relationships Video Paris Is Burning Looks at ball culture that of the predecessors to RuPaul and drag queens t studies the culture of transgender men living in a community those whose status links to their identity as trans gt Notice how their experience as black and disadvantages trans people compares to Chris Jenner s experience as a wealthy white trans woman gt We create inequality through our social interactions How do these people s lives embody social inequality gt It s important to note the ways the people who are transgender reembody the norms and the practices of cisgender norms and practices of sexuality We see the reproduction of norms of heteronormativity while trans people continue being outsiders On that note performativity is the performance of gender differences gt Poverty also plays a role in their identity gt Most of them are homeless or street kids As such the ball scene is divided into houses that replace families The houses create community around balls allowing for gay teens to have family despite having been kicked out of their birth homes gt Trend towards inclusivity at the ball creation of new categories to include very different types of people There s something there for everyone gt The film is all about performance the men do female by performing the role of women at balls They take it one step further by trying to act straight the realness category if you could pass as a functioning man in society despite being a gay transgender man then you win the realness category The thing is we are all constantly doing exactly that living our lives playing social roles and assuming social status without ever questioning what we re doing And yet when it comes to gender and sexuality everything comes back down to that performance even for cisgender people The only difference is that cisgender people don t question their actions because they fit with the societal norms Ref The State vs Newman Trial which deals with the sentencing of a trans male It is possible to be tried for reason of withholding information about gender identification and STDs The judge s interpretation of the defendant s gender identity as well as the law is what is upsetting people Furthermore the precedent this case will set for gender in court worries the public The whole controversy leads into the debate about whether the defendant will go to a male of female prison which could put the defendant in potential danger Should the judge alone have the right to decide how the defendant identifies Ecology and sex Sex is defined at birth from primary characteristics or genitalia and secondary characteristics bodily developments other than genetalia that distinguish between men and women ie wider hips in women more body hair on men etc Intersex people In any given group of people in a population there is a number of people whose genitalia fall under those of neither male nor female Or when a person reaches the point of dvlpt of secondary characteristics the body does develops otherwise than the way it is expected to have according to their signed birth I gt ntersex people used to be referred to as abnormal because they don t fit into the binary Now with the return to normalcy of intersex people they make up a bit less than 1 of the world s population a pandora s box has been opened how natural is our gender binary if there are people who naturally fall outside the binary With the rise of power to the LGBTQIA mvmt the Intersex Society of North America has gained more awareness therefore bringing attention to the breaking of theNow ourjustification for gender must be brought into question hormone levels ie testosterone and estrogen are found in both men and women in amounts that are above and below average At what point in checking out our biology do we assign sex to a person How do we know who s a man and who s a woman gt What we see here is that biology is not a strong as we think it is REF The PhallOMeter gt Measurement of newborn babies phallis Shows that even genitalia fall under a spectrum and not a binary Society can t have an individual that fits outside the two gender boxes because society is obsessed with putting people into gender boxes Socially speaking we don t let people identify as anything outside of the two we have to change them to make them fit inside this box or that box References the construction of gender and sexuality in very binary ways gt The question becomes Where do you draw the line Who s going to say who s a man and who s a woman Why do we care gt We never ask ourselves these questions because we assume that the boxes are firm and rigid and that because we imagine that everyone lines up with these measures throughout life gt Now that we have the technology to look at all of this information we are now just realizing what gender sexuality look like a spectrum There s great variation even within our very bodies gt Our notions of gender closely mix with our notions of sexuality and each set of notions fits very securely within a strict binary When outside the binary social institutions treat people as abnormal ex medicine school gt Our attachment to the gender binary is socially constructed Our attachment to the binary categories comes from obsessions within our society with binary categories posed upon a realm of data Just like with stereotypes you only see what fits in with your gendersexuality lens Our notion of binary categories of gender are basically stereotypes Ref The image of the Space between nature and nurture Evelyn Fox Keller Let s say we re trying to fill a bucket In this bucket are Mary s maternal roles Why is Mary so maternal The traditional way of seeing it is that genes contribute to her traits while more modern thinking sees her traits as social But in fact it s more a mix of genes and social context that becomes one interrelated input to produce what s in the bucket However even the mix of the two factors cannot explain Mary s behavior gt Even the attribution of certain personality types such as thinking sensing are really just stereotypes attributed to different categories of people gt At no point are genes and environment separated If you think of species evolution animals with favorable genetic traits are those that survive according to their environment Even according to this species the genetic utility is always useful in function of their environment The same applies to any individual the genetic makeup is never separated from the environment gt Through the field of epigenetics we now know that all of our traits are manipulated by environmental conditions There is no separation to the understanding of the mix between genetics and environment Therefore whenever you hear something is hardwired it is either not correct as a hard science or not true at all There is no gay gene genes and the environment are so completely interconnected that the environment plays an important role not just genes It s way too easy to just say that there s a gay gene That is false and there s no scientific evidence for it Hardwired l there s no room for choice Sexuality amp Society One approach suggests that people in any society attach meaning to sexual act and that meanings differ from place to place as well as over time gt Foucault points out that there was no term for homosexual behavior until just over a century ago when scientists and the public began diagnosing people in such a way gt Anthropological studies have shown that patterns of homosexuality differ around the world Ex the Chuckee Eskimos the Sambia and the Muxes of Mexico all have different attitudes towards derivative sexual behavior than Western culture does Sexuality used to be seen as a pressing mental disease In 1968 the DSM2 took homosexuality out as a mental disorder and began the process of people understanding that homosexuality was not something that needed to be cured gt The idea for this class is to analyze the social structure into which people who are not normal don t fit gt What do otir institutions do that make it oiitt39iotiit tot poopio that do hot tit tho iri i m to tit ih Our social institutions themselves construct sexuality We are today challenging the binary structure of gender and sexuality in society The other way that sexuality is constructed through a binary is the construction of how to be successful within a society This happens in all of our social institutions without exception Ex on this campus institutions like sports discriminate current events transgender woman sueing gym for allowing transgender woman to use the women s restroom
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