19th Century Science
19th Century Science 1003
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This 7 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alexia Gallien on Wednesday November 5, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1003 at Louisiana State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see History in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 11/05/14
19th Century Science Thursday ctber 3 Z 14 1 28 AM From Positivism to Relativism Metanarrative Coming of Modernity IE 19th Century Periodization based on International Events 1814 Restoration of the quotOld Orderquot 0 Congress of Vienna System 1854 1856 Crimean War 0 Unification 0 Overview of Periodization A Science 1 To 1870 positivism materialism 2 1870 1890s quotSciencequot and the human condition Darwin misapplied quotSocial sciencesquot forming 3 1890s positivism challenge relativism probability I Paradigm I Comes from Newton B Fine Arts 1 1871 not a useful periodization Impressionism 1850s 1890s 2 1890 Non Representational Art subjectivism I If it involves your emotions if it speaks to you I Nature expressed through painting 0 Science Per se there must be laws A Post 1850 Advances 1 Math Chemistry Bacteriology I Health why people begin to live longer I Chemistry comes up 2 ElectricityThermodynamics I Becomes a common use of energy B The Problem of 3939linear changequot 0 If you start with a premise that everything in nature obeys laws 1 The Fossilliving form question taxonomy I Classifying living forms of animals plants I They try to fit them into a sequence I There has to be a law I History starts someplace and ends someplace else 2 Charles Darwin I Ask what is the law of linear change between plants and animals a The Books 0 Origin of Species by Natural Selection 1859 o Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex 1871 He excluded man Ingredients 0 Paleontology and Geology 0 Malthus Population dynamics amp Market Model 0 He got interested in population 0 He was clergy o In parishes churches kept records of births and deaths continuing from the Council of Trent 0 Species compete for food resources 0 Environment is changing slowly 0 Food resources available is changing o Enlightenment External shapers orderly processes 0 Still embrace Empiricism 0 Physical Environment as it changes 0 When talked about humans it fit Flaws Change is Uniform o Constant but uniform o Periods of some extinction 0 Long periods of stability 0 Darwin could not account for why particular individuals within a species might have traits that would help that species to adapt to surroundings o Cant account for why some individuals are different from one another 0 Genetics through sexual reproduction that39s where the changes come from o What he had to say resonated with people 0 Way of thinking quotScientismquot The Cult of Science Comte39s quotPositivismquot Historical stages of knowledge 0 Theology 0 The belief system o Belief in God 0 Believe It or you don39t 0 Metaphysics o How it is that we know 0 Not really subject to proof within boundaries 0 Has certain way of proving itself 0 Science quotPositivequot Knowledge quotSociologyquot 3939Laws3939 0 Come up with laws that govern society 0 Laws will in fact look like laws of science 0 Can be modeled with mathematics 0 But Comte was more a theorist Society to be transformed o The Enightenment39s Dream 0 If you just follow the natural laws everything will be okay The misuse of Biological Findings Materialism and social prejudice a Spencer and Social Darwinism o Darwinism process of natural selection is one that favors the fittest 0 Do not interfere with the high deathrate with the children of the poor 0 You could spot the superior walking on the street 0 Taller heavier o Needed a lot of strong men to do physical work 0 People are saying white Europeans are divided into nations 0 Sub species of men 0 Italians and others are below Englishmen 0 These groups compete through war fare 0 But that39s okay nature39s way of finding the fittest b quotScientific Racistsquot Haeckel Gabineau HS Chamberlain o Took genetics and studied it o Said Europeans are different 0 You were condemned by your genes 0 If there was a Jew in your family way back then you were also a Jew now c Eugenics 0 Help nature along 0 Make sure that people who are defectiveet39s make sure they do not reproduce o Distorts survival of the fittest B History the discipline as a science empiricism 1 Somehow history would speak for itself C Religion Laws are already in nature Documents of history contain their own order Began publication of documents Every country started recording political history 0 Compromise Christians got mad at Darwin Christian humanists wanted to find the most original texts of the bible Vernacular languages 0 Not knowing what the whole bible says Historical Criticism People said Science is wrong 0 We believe the bible was inspired by God Protestants o Believed in literal sense the bible The bible besides that there were the teachings of the church First vatican council was to affirm that the pope when he speaks from the chair he speaks from God Catholics had an idea of continuing Revelation 0 Fight Fundamentalisms I Still going on Positivism Challenged Learn things through science Begins to be challenged at the end of the 19th century Nietzsche Rejects quotabsolute knowledgequot I He said quotNoquot quotSupermanquot and I quotnatural moralityquot in contrast I All human beings are essentially the same Enightenment39s view I To conventional religious moralities o Judaism buddism christianity 0 He criticized all of these Aphorisms I People who are conservative quoted him a lot because it seemed to support their point of view Social Sciences Sociology I Study of society using scientific methods Freud and the non rationa mind I Was a doctor in Vienna I Professor of Neurosciences 0 Mental illness 0 Had to have a physical cause 0 When someone came in with a illness and died they would do an autopsy on the neuro system 0 Couldn39t find anything but KEPT on looking 0 Had a private practice 0 His colleagues would refer people to him 0 Mostly women 0 Messed with shock therapy did not work 0 Went to Paris to study with other doctors o Asked the women about their sexual relations 0 Found out that it brought back repressed memories of abuse from childhood 0 Tried to get his research published but no one wanted to do it Max Weber generalization not 3939laws3939 I Why couldn39t you have laws 0 You could create an experiment and do it over again 0 Scientific model will not work with sociology o This is what will happen under these circumstances 0 Probability NOT certainty Cultural Anthropology Pit Rivers BoasMead I Went out and studied primitive societies 0 Pacific islands 0 Perfect laboratory 0 Asked people 0 What do you think is right 0 You discover that there were 3 societies that practiced polyandry o Poyandry one woman to have many husbands o Europeans thought that infanticide was wrong 0 But in other places they didn39t think anything was wrong with it 0 Females were less valued o Europeans gave them to nuns hospitals Sciences RadioactivityBecquere Curie et al I Pictures I How the atoms radiate energy Doppler Effect and General Relativity I Everything we know of the universe comes to us in frequency I What you see is not always what you get I The world as it appears to our senses is wrong Art Japanese simplicity architecture I How we build skyscrapers Form and content divorce subjectivity Fragmented audienced ltlt19th Century Sciencewmagtgt Audio recording started 1054 AM Tuesday November 4 2014 The Rest of the 19th century Tuesday November 4 2014 1123 AM Textchapter 28 First Part WWI is in a Separate Folder I Development 18561914 A Second European Empires Develop 1 Sepoy Rebellion 1867 India to the British Crown 0 Indians did not want foreigners coming onto their land 0 Indian nationalists persuaded the Sepoys to rebel 0 Queen Victoria becomes queen of India 2 French into Indochina Vietnam Cambodia for Rubber 1860s I We39ll go a place where we can grow rubber trees I Racism I Workers do not want to accept the pay they are receiving I Government steps in I Catholic missionaries convert a few people 0 Usually get in trouble 3 Mastery of Tropical Diseases rapid fire weapons steam ships telegraphs make conquest of Africa and tropical Asia possible I Steamships could move troops rapidly I Telegraphs allowed people out in the colony to send an urgent message The limits of Ecological Imperialism are overcome 4 Berlin Congress 1885 sets rules for partition of Africa I Went further inland I Signed up native rulers I Bismark calls for a congress partitioning Africa 0 River makes a boundary II The Run Up to WWI A Bismark39s System to 1890 0 Chancellor head of government 0 Alliance with Austria Hungary and Russia 0 Keep France Isolated 0 Lost them in the war 0 Alsace Lorraine I Some people speak French and some speak German 0 Appear to be the Good Neighbor while advancing German interests 0 Ending of this system creates the quotDiplomatic Revolutionquot of the 1890s B German Policy After 1890 o Firm Alliance with Austria Hungary Why did the connection with Russia break down 39 Wanted to modernize their army had to import technology went to the Germansthey said we don39t want you to modernize The French loan them money and loan them technology and we will give you weapons 2 Prepare for a Two front War Consequence of refusal to renew the Re nsurance treaty with Russia in 1890 3 Assertive International Policy esp in I Colonies I Naval building program of 18981900 39 Testing AngloFrench Entente of 1904 Morocco19051911 Got the british nervous British wanted to have the strongest navy They were threatened