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Ling 301 - Intro and Week 2 Notes

by: Johanna Murphy

Ling 301 - Intro and Week 2 Notes Ling 301

Johanna Murphy
GPA 3.96
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk

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About this Document

Linguistic Analysis, notes from weeks 1 and 2. Basics of language and linguistics, phonetics, articulation, IPA.
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 301 at University of Oregon taught by Melissa Baese-Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistic Analysis in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 10/09/15
LING 301 Lecture September 30 Main Ideas Productivity Displacement Re exivity make human language unique Communication is not the same as language Speech vs Writing 0 A central assumption of modern linguistics is that speech is primary writing is secondary 0 People can know lots about language without knowing how to read and write 0 Many languages aren t written 0 Popular thought tends to put writing as primary 0 Something wealthy and educated people know how to do same group of people that usually make the rules about writing Differences between Writing and Speech 0 Writing has to be taught whereas language acquisition is natural 0 Writing is solitary where speaking is primarily facetoface 0 Writing has no context whereas social and temporal context is available in speech 0 Writing is planned speaking can be either planned or spontaneous 0 Writing is permanent and semipermanent speaking is less permanent 0 Writing is less variable Primacv of Speech 0 Humans developed the ability to speak hundreds of thousands of years ago but writing has only existed for 50006000 years 0 All children naturally develop the ability to speak the language variety of their community 0 Many humans are illiterate 0 Neurolinguistics evidence suggests that the process of writing language builds off of the process of speech Key Terms 0 Orthography how something is spelled 0 Grapheme the smallest unit of writing a letter or punctuation mark 0 Alphabet a symbol that stands for a sound 0 English has about 24 consonant sounds and between 1416 vowel sounds but only 26 graphemes letters 0 Hangul Korean alphabet is considered to have a great graphemetosound correspondence 0 French has poor graphemetosound correspondence because it has many silent letters Other Writing Svstems 0Ideographic or pictographic system a symbol represents an idea 0 Example Aztecs 0 Some consider this not really writing because writing involves symbols representing other symbols 0Logographic system a symbol stands for a word or morpheme 0 Example Chinese 0 Arbitrary the symbol doesn t necessarily visually represent the word or sound 0Syllabary a symbol stands for a syllable 0 Examples Cuneiform in Mesopotamia Cherokee Amharic Who Defines the Right Wav to Speak or Use Language 0 Some countries have academies that decide language 0 Example Academie Francaise 0 No English Language Academy 0 Other ideas English teachers writers copyeditors linguists politicians Grammar 0 Set of rules that dictate how language can and should be used 0 Not natural rules that must be used across languages 0 English uses prepositions other languages use postpositions 0 Example of comes first in English comes after the noun in other languages 0 English puts the adjective before the noun green shirt while other languages put adjective after the noun shirt green Prescriptive vs Descriptive Grammar 0 Prescriptive grammar prescribes rules how language should work 0 Example Don t split infinitives To eat shouldn t be split to quickly eat is incorrect Because in other languages infinitives cannot be split to eat comer 0 Double negatives are incorrect 0 Descriptive grammar describes rules of how language is actually used Difference between Grammar and Usage 0 Grammar is different from spelling punctuation and usage Linguistic Knowledge 0 Many linguists present a fundamental problem of linguistic analysis as uncovering linguistic competence hidden knowledge about language 0 We don t think about language in the same way we don t think about walkingbreathing 0 Linguistic performance is an observable behavior knowledge that is not hidden How we Store Knowledge and Communicate Ideas 0 Linguistic knowledge is stored in at least two forms 0 Lexicon all the words you know 0 Grammar how you put all the stuff you know together 0 Not just putting together words but forming different kinds of words putting sounds together etc Oct 5 Sounds in Language 0 Normal English orthography isn t helpful for precisely depicting the sounds of speech 0 Example no symbol for ng sound 0 There are also many spellings that can indicate the same sound 0 Did hl bel39ve that C39sar could s the plple 0 International Phonetic Alphabet IPA is an orthographic system that really has a ltol sound to grapheme correspondence How do we Make Speech Sounds 0 Air is set in motion in the lungs 0 It passes through the vocal folds in the larynx 0 Then through the supralaryngeal vocal tract Describing SDeech Sounds 0 We generally differentiate speech sounds into two categories 0 Consonants most constriction O Vowels lease constriction 0 Can describe and subcategorize speech sounds by their properties Consonants 0 3 main properties of consonants O Voicing 0 Place of articulation O Manner of articulation 0 Voicing whether the vocal folds are vibrating or not 0 Example s and z in mace vs maize 0 Minimal pairs pairs of words that differ by only one sound in the same position 0 Place of Articulation where in the vocal tract the constriction is made 0 Bilabial made by bringing the lips together b p m w 0 Labiodental made with the lower lip against the upper from teeth 39 f V O Interdental made by tip of the tongue protruding between the front teeth e Iigh wi39 39 5 39y lose 0 Alveolar made with the tip of the tongue at or near alveolar ridge 39 tdSZn1 O Palatal made just behind alveolar ridge l 162139 t3 I111 d5 lule I 3 mealure O Velar made with tongue against soft palate velum k g 0 Glottal produced at the larynx P uIoh 0 Manner of Articulation what constriction does to the air ow O Stops made by obstructing the air stream 39 b P td 0 Fricatives nearly complete obstruction of the vocal tract creates a hissing noise called a frication 39 f V S Z O Affricates made by brie y stopping the airstream completely then releasing it so the frication noise is produced t3 d5 Collectively stops fricatives and affricates are called obstruents O Nasals similar to stops but air ow goes through nasal cavity 39 m n O 0 Approximants less closure than other consonants 39 Wil1ll Vowels 0 Four major characteristics tongue height tongue frontnessbackness lip rounding tenseness 0 Tongue height corresponds with the openness of the mouth 0 Tenseness refers to how extreme the tongue s positioning is 0 beat more extreme 0 bit less extreme Diphthongs 0 Several vowels in English have two articulations 0 Singularly articulated vowels are called monophthongs 0 boy starts with 0 changes into e sound 0 Conventions for writing the second part of the vowel the glide can look like this an 39 0 i y 1 How do Ventriloquists Make these Sounds 0 Choose sounds that are easier to make with mouth closed 0 6Ch39 6666 0 Can use sounds that are similar and audience s mind will repair it topdown effect Other Wavs of Describing Speech Sounds 0 Sagittal sections use pictures to depict sounds 0 Open glottis voiceless 0 Nasal passage closed nonnasal Oct 7 Flap and Tap 0 Ballistic Consonant tongue touches the top of your mouth and comes back really quickly 0 Example middle consonant in matter 0 Called a Flap F usually a d or t sound between 2 vowels alveolar Syllabic Consonants 0 Consonants that are really open have lots of air ow 0 Can be the nucleus of a syllable 0 Write it with a syllabic marking diacritic L 0 Examples r l n SuDrasegmental Features 0 Features of speech sounds that go over individual segments stress length intonation Stress 0 Property of syllables not segments 0 Stressed syllables are more prominent than unstressed ones 0 Longer louder more tense vowels 0 In English stress can determine meaning of words 0 CONtent vs conTENT 0 REfuse vs reFUSE 0 Stress doesn t follow a predictable pattern in English 0 Can change with adding prefixes and suffixes Schwa a O Unstressed syllables are pronounced more like schwa than the vowel they d be if they were stressed 0 Examples Imong fa s 0 Inconsistencies I nsIstInsiz 0 Syllabic consonants are really just a plus the consonant Length 0 Some speech sounds are inherently longer than others 0 In some languages segment length is used for meaning Intonation 0 you had candy for dinner question or statement depending on the intonation 0 Rise and fall in pitch over an utterance 0 Not expressed in the IPA but can be expressed through other systems 0 Example in Mandarin there are four words spelled ma but pronounced with a different intonation so they each have a different meaning In written mandarin each word has a different symbol NonEnglish Speech Sounds 0 Nonpulmonic speech sounds are not made by pushing air through the lungs 0 Example clicks O C dental click in IPA O X lateral click in IPA O Q postalveolar click in IPA 0 Ej ectives and Egressives made by increasing pressure during closure raising the larynx causing explosive sound Aspiration 0 The p sound in pit has aspiration a little puff of air Spectrogram 0 Allows us to visualize sound components of a complex sound 0 Xaxis is time 0 Yaxis is frequency 0 Acoustic phonetics uses instrumental techniques to go beyond impressionistic understanding of speech Acoustic Phonetics 0 Speech sounds are complex waves 0 Vowels are periodic O Consonants usually aperiodic 0 Properties of waves can be measured 0 Lengthduration 0 Frequency 0 Intensity 0 What components make up the waves Speech Perception 0 There are no spaces in speech other than pauses 0 Can lead to misunderstandings 0 fraud vs frog 0 Phonemes can have more than one waveform called lack of invariance 0 To solve this problem we generalize over the tops of variables that don t matter 0 We perceive speech sounds categorically O Able to discriminate well across categories but not always within categories 0 Expectations also in uence what you hear


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