Week 6 Revolutions and Rise of the Earliest Cities
Week 6 Revolutions and Rise of the Earliest Cities ANT 3200
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Cooper on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 3200 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Krysta Ryzewski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Lost Cities and Ancient Civilizations in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Week 6 Revolutions The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions Rise of the Earliest Cities KEYWORDS Neolithic Revolution Urban Revolution Craft Specialization Catalhoyuk Domestication Einkom Wheat Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Ziggurat Sumeria Babylon Assyria Ur S Uruk S Ninevah A Leonard Woolley S Cuneiform Code of Hammurabi Gilgamesh S Dead Sea Scrolls Ishtar A amp B tell ANCIENT EGYPT amp Archaeological Methods Location along the Nile River Existed about 3150 BC332 BC 9 about 3000 years comprised of about 31 different dynasties Egyptian Sites Abydos most important religious site and a very important political site seat of the very rst kings though debatable the people thought of kings as deities temple resurrected here dedicated to Osiris Egyptian Social Pyramid Pharoah Vizier Nobles Priests Scribes Soldiers Craftsmen Farmers Slaves Roles are strict there is no upward mobility What gets preserved in Abydos Modif1ed bodies The humidity and lack of moisture preserves the artifacts 9sometimes archaeologists have to pick and choose what stays and what should go Lack of land sometimes it s difficult to choose between preserving the past and helping the people of the present What doesn t get preserved buildings spaces that have been used over and over again in the past either by past archaeologists or the people who have lived there Week 6Revolutions The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions Rise of the Earliest Cities How do you find things in Egypt Well you start with a question then target the research Sometimes you survey the area rst to get an idea of what s there 9magnetometry a remote sensing technique when excavating archaeologists go through the sand and sift looking for things that may be more valuable than bigger artifacts Questions for Revolutions and the Origins of Civilizations How do we de ne cities What are the key features of civilization When how and why did civilizations develop How can we recognize these in the archaeological record Civilization made out of the states cities social amp political complexity and organization as well as other factors Revolution 9 change transformation Neolithic revolution about 4500 years 9 social organization and food production change Ex Going from hunting and gathering to growing food Ex Going from nomadic lifestyle to a settled lifestyle Urban revolution period of transformation from small villages to complex states Greater change than the Neolithic revolution Revolutions took place after they happened They are terms coined by archaeologists Cultural revolution goes from prestate to state savage9barbarism9 civilization Neolithic revolution Hunter gatherers 9 settlements Began in southern Turkey Domestication of animals domestication of plants Not sure of what came rst settlements or domestication The shapes and sizes of domesticated animals are different than the sizes of wild animals Einkorn wheat rst domesticated plant cultivated in large quantities More food 9 more people Reliable source of food There may be a bad crop 9 no food Large quantities 9 food storage Beer and alcohol break biscuits pasta etc Catalhoyuk Week 6 Revolutions The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions Rise of the Earliest Cities a Location Southern Turkey Oldest Neolithic settlement in Turkey and in the world oldest city in the world Probably housed 5000 people 9 was it a village or a city Neolithic village not a city A tell a mount Catal was a tell before it was a Neolithic village Was it Catal a city it s permanent there was a huge population size social diversity Catal had nothing that hinted it was a city structures were made out of mud brick just like Chaco Canyon Evidence of ritual amp trade Mother goddess figurineshad some type of ritual importance Urban Revolution Mesopotamia located between 2 rivers Euphrates amp Tigris Ur not a sweeping wave it happened in different places at different times Archaeological evidence 1compleX social organization 2 Centralized economies eX Tribute taxation social states trade craft specialization division of labor 3 Public buildings 4 State religion ruler also plays a part in the religion most likely a deity type f1gure Ripple Effects prior to the urban revolution there was no hierarchy there wasn t a bottom you had to work for a living 9 less freedom limited diet new diseases coming from traders MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATIONS Sumerian Assyrian Babylonian 1867 BC 539 BC Dead Sea Scrolls 1947 9 earliest surviving Biblical documents 9 Biblical accuracy surges or the need for Biblical accuracy Lydia ancient term for Turkey Sumeria the most ancient civilization Week 6Revolutions The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions Rise of the Earliest Cities SUMERIA most ancient civilization had citystates that fought with each other 9 they are spoke the same language Akadian there was no capitol the wealth just went to the leadership in various citystates they had control over the water systems Akkadian no family members not derived from any other language First evidence of writing of a written story 9 Gilgamesh Gilgamesh was a ruler that lived about a century or so before the epic Gilgamesh epic poem about him and his first enemy written in cuneiform has oral traditions that in uenced the Bible Uruk had Govemments Writing system 60 second wheel Largest city in Sumeria also a city state Beveled bowls Enlil head of pantheon Ur Sumerian city state 3800 BC 1890 BC Considered the birthplace of Abraham Ziggurat was a tell in the 1920s until excavation Royal tombs of Urcommoners were buried with the crafts they were specialized in mass suicide when the leader went to the afterlife