Vegetarianism, Chapter 9, Chapter 11
Vegetarianism, Chapter 9, Chapter 11 FDNS 2100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Lindler on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Barbara M. Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Human Development at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Vegetarianism Lactoovo Vegetarian Avoids meat fish and poultry Eats eggs amp dairy Most common type in US amp Canada Vegan quotstrict vegetarian Avoids all animal products meat eggs dairy fish even honey Flexitarian Plantbased with occasional meat products Vegetarian Foods and Universal 0 Historically most people of the world have eaten a largely vegetarian diet 0 Only in affluent societies Europe amp North America has a diet central around meat Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet 0 Low in cholesterol saturated fat 0 Cholesterol is only from meat eggs dairy fish 0 High in fiber 0 Whole grains fruit vegetables 0 Contains healthy fats 0 Nuts seeds avocados 0 Less Chronic Disease 0 Heart disease cancer diabetes obesity Why do People Become Vegetarian Health Primary reason decreased incidence of chronic disease Concern for the environment cattle grazing 9 erosion of topsoil pollution and large resource use from large animal farms Environmental concern more protein per acre from plants Ethical choice compassion for animals religious reasons eg Hinduism or Seventh day Advents Aesthetic reasons don t like the taste or look of meat Poitica reason help alleviate world hunger can grow more plant protein What Vegetarians Need to Consider 0 Vegetable Sources of protein are incomplete 0 Must complement plant proteins 0 To receive all necessary amino acids 0 Must be eaten within the same day Complementary Proteins o Grains and legumes o Grains and milk products 0 Seeds and legumes Nutrients possibly limited on a vegan diet Protein Calcium ron Zinc Vitamin D Vitamin BlZ Omega 3fatty acids Chapter 11 Diet amp Health Infectious Disease caused by bacteria viruses parasites transmitted primarily through contact Chronic Disease typicay irreversible Arises due to genetic predisposition medica historycurrent conditions ifestye choices Nutrition and Immunity Immunity is impaired by 0 Less protein 0 Less energy 0 Less vitamin A E amp D 0 Less Bvitamins folate vitamin C 0 Less copper magnesium selenium 0 Less or more Iron 0 Less or more Zinc Malnutrition can also result from disease cancer HVADS Treatments for these diseases Risk Factors Chronic diseases have suspected contributors called risk factors show correlation with disease Risk factors can be genetic environmenta behaviora Cardiovascular Disease Results in approximately 1 million deaths annually in US 1 Cause of death in developed nations Population at risk Men more likely to experience MI Women more likely to die from MI Atherosclerosis Development soft fatty deposits along inner wall of artery deposits enlarge become hard plaques contributes to inelastic narrow vessel walls Blood clots plaques induce abnormal blood clotting Thrombus stationary blood clot can grow until they shut off blood flow to surrounding tissue 9 tissue death Embolus a thrombus that breaks loose results in heart attack or stroke CVD Risk Factors Dietary Risk Factors high in saturated fat and trans fat low in vegetables fruits whole grains low in Omega3 Fatty acids fish oils 9 oppose clot formations Other risk factors High LDL cholesterol low HDL cholesterol hypertension smoking infections obesity diabetes physical inactivity Hypertension HTN Risk factor for CVD What makes blood pressure too high constricted blood vessels to increase nutrient oxygen delivery HTN exacerbates atherosclerosis High BP 9 damages to arteries 9 clot formation Atherosclerosis exacerbates HTN hardened arteriesclots 9 decreased blood flow to kidneys 9 increased blood pressure 9 HTN Blood Pressure Assessment Systolic pressure pressure during contraction of heart Diastolic pressure pressure during relaxation of heart Ideal resting BP 12080 Borderline normal BP 13085 High BP 14090 Risk Factors for Hypertension Modifiable risk factors obesity atherosclerosis insuin resistance Nonmodifiable risk factors oder age genetic predisposition to HTN African Americans have greater prevalence of HTN Nutrition and Hypertension Healthy Diet increased fruits vegetables fish lowfat dairy intake reduce sodium intake reduce fat intake increase calcium potassium magnesium vitamin C dietary approaches to stop hypertension Physical Activity reieves stress aids in weight maintenance Sodium and HTN Plays a role in maintenance of body fluid homeostasis reguates extracellular fluid amp plasma volume High sodium diet associated with HTN increases blood pressure DGA Recommendation 2300 mgd Diabetes Mellitus Elevation of blood glucose concentration related to inadequate or ineffective insulin impairs ability to regulate blood glucose normally Insulin clears glucose from blood delivers it to tissue Types of DM Type 1 pancreas produces little or no insulin Type 2 pancreas makes insulin but cells resist insulin s actions insulin resistance Complications kidney damage blindness CVD neuropathy Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes Managing type 2 DM Cancer controled total carbohydrate adequate fiber moderate added sugars low saturated fat and adequate unsaturated oils adequate but not very high protein intake low carb diet is NOT recommended Disease in which cells multiply faster than normal disrupts normal functioning of organs Steps of Cancer Development 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exposure to carcinogen Carcinogen enters cell Carcinogen damages or changes cell s DNA initiation Damage promoted by other carcinogens promotion cell begins to multiply out of control tumor formation Cancer cells spread via blood and lymph metastasis Disruption of normal body functions Nutrition and Cancer Carcinogens can be food substances body can detoxify small doses that occur naturally in foods potentia carcinogens can develop with food processing approximately 15 of cancer could be eliminated by preventing obesity diets high in fruits and vegetables inked to low occurrence of cancer diets high in dietary fat meat alcohol excess calories inked to increased risk of cancer Phytochemicals and Cancer Whole grains fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants and phytochemicals prevent initiation and progression of cancer Cruciferous vegetables associated with decreased risk of colon cancer Foods that are high in phytochemicals are functional foods promote health fight disease Chapter 9 Energy Balance Too Little or too Much Fat What are risks for underweight not enough reserves can t fight wasting disease eg cancer How fat is too fat increased chronic disease wobesity central obesity quotappetite shape especially dangerous Body Mass Index BMI ratio of weight to height weight kgheight2 cm Healthy BMI 185249 Overweight 25299 Obese gt or 30 BMI not accurate for body builders excess weight is muscle not fat The Body s Energy Balance Energy In Food and beverages consumes calories Energy Out Basa metabolic rate BMR metaboism breathing body tempwhile at complete rest Thermic Effect if Food TEF energy to digest food approximately 10 of total energy needs Physical activity intentiona activity eg walking running To increase body fat stores energy in lt energy out Energy n Hunger physiologica internal drive to eat eg low blood glucose controled by internal body Appetite psychologica external drive to eat often in the absence of hunger food looks good to eat BMR is greatest component of energy expenditure for most people 1lb of body fat 3500 calories Estimating Body Fatness Anthropometry skinfold test measures subcutaneous fat Underwater weighing weight in water vs weight in air Bioelectrical Impedance electrical current fat has more electrical resistance than muscle Dexa xrays fat responds different to xrays than muscle Bod pod measures body volume by air pressure body weightvolume body density body density is proportional to body fat Influence on Weight Gain and Obesity Hereditary and Genetic Factors Evidence adopted children have weight similar to biological parents not adoptive parents if one obese biological parent 60 chance of obese child if two biological parents are obese 90 chance of obese child Sociocultural factors palatability of food esp fat content Food availability highly palatable high calorie affordable foods available 247 big problem in US Age and Lifestyle physical inactivity Psychological factors oneiness addiction depression stress Early Theories of Weight Regulation Fat Cell Theory obesity is influenced by total number of fat cells in body most fat cells are formed during childhood can limit obesity if limit number fat cells in childhood Set Point Theory body fat is maintained around a set point like a thermostat obese people have a high set point Hormones Help Regulate Energy Balance Short term Ghrelin from stomach increase hunger by activating specific brain cells ghrein increases before meals decreases after meals Long term Leptin from fat cells decreases hunger by activating specific brain cells obese have high leptin but don t respond to it quotleptin resistance