Histology and Bone Tissue
Histology and Bone Tissue BSC 215
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Carson on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Weekly Notes for Pioneer BSC 215 Histology amp Bone Tissue and Physiology Vocabulary 1 Epithelia covers lines and protects the outer most surface 2 Extracellular matrix ECM outside ce made by secretion of cesdetermines tissue types Glycosaminoglycan s GAGs Keratinized keratin layer cells no nuclei in keratin Pseudo strati ed ciliated columnar Merocrine secretion by gland Parenchyma Trabeculae found in the bone and collagen cartilage Squamous thin at cells SOPONP P FS Properties of Tissues A group of cells similar in structure that cooperate to perform a func on 0 Cells imbedded in an ECM of ground substance and brous proteins Four Primary Tissue Classes 0 Epithelial l epidermis Connective cartilage Nervous neuron Muscularl skeletal muscle Cells Extracellular Matrix Over 200 types 0 Extracellular Collagen bers uid gel or solid 20 types 0 9 broad morphological types 0 H20 ions Resists Tension nutrients and 3 major macromolecules Glycosaminoglyca Exhibit nsproteogycans elasticity and glycoproteins Ces secrete and maintain ECM Smaller Collagen like bers provides Suppo yg i Cuboda E EH 11quot P1 lid 1 Stellate quotstar likequot 0 Spheroidal quotSherquot urple w r iFF gt39 Fusiform smooth muscleljlonger and skinnier than squamous muse H a gt ibrous skeletal muscle 39 quot397 739 1 Ground Substance Gelatinous to rubbery substance due to charged GAGs that attract water 0 Structure of proteoglycansl quotbottle brushquot structure Created by Paint X 0 Blue Linker protein 0 Pink GAG 0 Structure enclosed in red Proteoglycan 0 Black core protein Protein Fibers Collagenous Fiber 25 of bodies protein tough resist stretching Reticular thin collagen bers with glycoprotein coat form sponge like frameworks for spleen and lymph nodes 0 Elastic made of elastin coiled protein with the ability to recoil no ATP required Cell junctions Physical connection between cell tissue 0 All cells except blood are anchored to each other or their matrix by intracellularjunctions Tight junctions proteins linked by hooks imbedded in the outer membrane weak junctions completely seal off intercellular space Desmosomes extension of cytoskeleton this connects cytoskeletons Gap junctions 6 transmembrane proteins allow water glucose amino acids and other solutes to pass between cells Epithelia Tissue Proper 2 broad types 0 covering and lining skin boundaries between different environments 0 body hollow tube 0 gut external 0 glands can be tissues as well Secrets mucous sweat enzymes hormones etc F Functions of Epithelial Tissue 0 Protection skin stomach lining immune function 0 Secretion enzymes hormones Excretion C02 in lungs 0 Absorption small intestine Filtration kidneys and bloodnitrogenous waste such as urine 0 Sensation nerve endings General Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue 1 Polarity a Apical away from body microvilli external environment association b Basal basal lamina non cellular lter between tissue type made of 2 ECM epithelial tissue and connective tissue 2 Specialized contacts a Tight junctions seal off b Desmosomes make stronger c Gap junctions 3 Avascular a No capillaries no blood 4 Supported by Connective Tissue a Reticular lamina basal lamina basal membrane strength b Blood vessels nutrition gas exchange and waste removable 5 lnnervated a Nerve endings 6 Regenerative a Can undergo mitosis Classi cation Squamousl Cuboidalljl All can be classi ed by being either strati ed or simple 0 Columnarl In this case can also be classi ed by pseudostrati ed columnar 1 Simple Squamous found in lungs a Apical surface cell nuclei basal lamina underlying tissue b C02 is transported out and O2 is transported in c Secretes lubricating serous uid intestinal serosa d Found also in kidney glomeruli endothelium and serosa 2 Simple Cuboidal kidneys a Function is to secrete or excrete b Ciliated in lungs c Found also in liver and mammary 3 Simple Columnar intestines a Longer because you need a longer evaluation time to evaluate harmful substances b Food is harder molecules than gas c Often contain goblet cells which secrete mucous d Found also in GI tract uterus kidneys and uterine tubes 4 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar respiratory tract a Secretes and propels mucous b All the cells touch the basement membrane c Ciliated and contains goblet cells d Found in trachea and male urethra Vas Deferens 5 Strati ed Squamous a Can be keratinized or not b Protects against abrasion c Found in esophagus vagina and heels d Most abundant type of tissue Transport Across Epithelia Transcellular Osmosis simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport and vesicular transport 0 Paracellular Less common due to tight junctions between cells rare process Strati ed Epithelial Tissue 220 layers only deepest membrane contacts basal membrane 0 4 Kinds Strati ed Squamous Strati ed Cuboidal Strati ed Columnar Transitional Epithelium Most abundant epithelial in the body deepest layer undergo continuous mitosis daughter cells push towards surface atten during migration obtain squamous shape die and ake off too far away from basal membrane 1 Strati ed Squamous a Keratinized i Multiple layers at scaly towards surface ii Resists abrasion retards water loss iii Epidermis palms and soles heavily keratinized b Nonkeratinized i No dead cell layers ii Tongue oral mucosa and esophagus vagins iii Resists abrasion 2 Strati ed Cuboidal a 2 or more cell layers b Secretes sweat sperm and ovarian hormone production c Sweat gland ducts ovarian follicles 3 Transitional a Multilayered epithelial change shape form round to attened when stretching dome shaped b Apical surface exible lipid layer c Provides protection Glands Cell or organ that secretes or excretes substances Cell example goblet cells Organs epithelial tissue encapsulated by connective tissue framework Exocrine secretes to external surface has a duct example sweat glands mammary salivary Endocrine secretes into blood stream no duct example hormones pineal gland Goblet Cells 0 GI tract and respiratory tract 0 Duodenum part of small intestine Secrete mucousMucin protein Multicellular Exocrine Glands Capsule of CT tissue covering inside capsule septa or trabeculae Stroma capsule and septa framework Parenchyma epithelial tissue usually cuboidal synthesize and secrete Types of Exocrine Glands 0 Simple Large Intestines 0 Compound Kidneys testes 0 Simple Acinar berry like urethra 0 Compound Acinar Exocrine portion of pancreas 0 Compound Tubuloacinar mammary glands Secretion Modes Merocrine eccrine products released as vesicles during exocytosis tear glands pancreas gastric glands sweat glands Reusable Apoc ne Similar to Merocrine but part of cytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical portion mammary Holocrine Accumulate product rupture to release it Ex sebaceous glands on scalp Vocabulary Adipose Connective tissue that contains fat deposits Areolar Loose connective tissue that is mainly ground substances Vascularity Having blood supply to the tissue 0 Perichondrium surrounding cartilage Periosteum surrounding bone Lamellae a thin layer membrane scale or plate like tissue or part especially in bone tissue 0 Osteoclasts a large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing Serous of resembling or producing serum 0 Ectoderm where we get nervous tissue from o Mesoderm most of connective and muscle tissue comes from Endoderm where epithelial tissue comes from Connective Tissue Functions 1 Bind organs together a Tendons muscle to bone b Ligaments bone to bone c Adipose holds eyes and kidneys in place 2Suppo a Bones support body b Cartilage support nose ears larynx c Fibrous tissue from cardiac skeleton d Example spleen 3 Physical Protection a Examples cranium rib cage adipose tissue 4 Immune Protection a Leukocytes are immune cells b Loose connective tissue forms a battleground of matrix under the skin and mucous membranes for leukocytes to do their job 5 Movement a Bones provide levers b Cartilage moves vocal cords 6 Adipose a Major energy reserve b Bones are major Ca and Phosphorus reserve 7 Heat Protection a Brown fat Catabolism generates heat in infants and children b Hibernating animals also have brown fat 8 Transport a Blood transport nutrients gas hormones etc Connective Tissue 0 Usually cells occupy less space than matrix 0 Cells often not in direct contract with each other 0 Matrix plays an extreme role in function connecting cells Vary greatly in vascularity ligaments and tendons not vascularized Loose connective highly vascularized De ning characteristic derived from common origin ECM plays an extensive role in function I Connective Tissue Proper Specialized Connective Tissue Cartilage Bone Blood Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Adipose Reticuar Connective Tissue Development Dense Connective Tissue Common embryonic origin Mesenchyme Reguar coming from mesoderm Irregular Fibroblast Fibrocyte Connective tissue Elastic proper Loose connective gel like substance all 3 ber types 0 Chondroblast cartilage chondrocyte cartilage 1 hyaline 2 brocartilage 3 elastic gel like collagen bers elastic bers in some 0 Osteoblastl osteocyte Osseous bone tissue 1 compact 2 spongy gel like hardened with Ca salt collagen bers 0 Hematopoietic stem cell blood cells Bloodl liquid plasma some bers form clots Connective Tissue Proper Widely distributed 0 Connects tissues and organs 0 Forms frameworks for some 0 ECM usually has conspicuous protein bers Cells 0 Fibroblasts maintain Adipocytesl store triglycerides Mast cels immune cells in ammatory response Phagocytes immune cells ingest and destroy foreign substances quotclean up Loose Connective o More ground substance than ber Dense Connective Tissue More ber than ground substance Areolar Loose Connective Tissue o All 5 types of cells broblasts adipocytes mast cells phagocytes other 0 All 3 ber typesmostly collagencollagen elastin reticular Abundant vascularized and provides for immune cells to patrol Reticular Mostly broblasts Reticular bers 0 quotblood soaked spongequot 0 Example spleen and lymph nodes Adipose Adipocytes Single large central globule of stored triglycerides Up to 5 times larger globules in obesity 0 Highly vascularized Held in network of collagen bers 0 White fat adults brown fat infants between shoulder blades 0 Accumulates subcutaneously triglycerides are constantly hydrolyzed and synthesized 0 Numerous mitochondria no ATP synthesis heat only Dense Connective Tissue Closely packed parallel collagen bers resist predictable tension 0 Tendons ligaments few blood vessels Dense Irregular 0 Random direction not parallel Dermis tough protective capsules around organs nerves and cartilages sheaths also around Dense Elastic Closely packed parallel elastic ber Allows tissues and organs to stretch Cartilage has a lot of collagen giving it thickness Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage knee invertebral discs and pubic symphysis Resists tension and compression Tough but exible Contains a lot of uidl 80 water Many GAGs and collagenous bers Fluid nature allows quick recovery after compression quotchondroquot l cartilage Produced by chondroblasts o Secrete matrix GAGs collagen and elastic bers Become trapped in lucanae Become chondrocytes Little vascularization and innervation therefore it takes a longer time to heal but you won t feel the pain because there are no nerves 0 Relies on perichondrium for nourishment and further growth chondroblasts 3 Major Types of Cartilage HyaHne 0 Looks glassy smooth 0 Most abundant most thin collagen bers few chondrocytes major component of epiphyseal plates Epiphyseal plates are normally in long bones and are the growth plate which turn into an epiphyseal line as an adult Elastic 0 Rich in elastin bers mostly in ear pinnae Fibrocartilage 0 Mostly course bundles of collagen resist compression knee vertebrae pubic bone Bone ECM similar to cartilage more collagen 13 dry weight infused with minerals Calcium phosphate 23 dry weight 0 Osteoblasts secrete matrix some become trapped in lacunae as osteocytes others remain associated with the periosteum Matrix deposited in layers lamellae Canaliculi delicate channel that connect lacunae Osteoclasts dissolve bone tissue in remodeling Compare and contrast casts breakdown bastsbuild Blood 0 Only liquid connective tissue 0 Ground substance plasma 0 Cells erythrocytes red and leukocytes white blood cells 0 Fibers Only form during clotting F Muscle Fibers Fiber same as cell and myocytes ECM endomysium surrounds muscle ber Excitable respond to electrical or chemical stimulus Cytoplasm lled with myo lament myo bril proteins 0 Endomysium similar to basal lamina of epithelial tissue 3 types 0 Skeletal muscle multi nucleated striations 1 long ber voluntary 0 Cardiac muscle multi nucleated striations brand off some control 0 Smooth muscle uninucleated no striations Found in stomach intestines artery walls involuntary Nervous Tissue 0 Supporting cessuper important 2 tpyes Neurons electrical impulses 0 Cell body contains nucleolus and organelles Dendrites many receive impulses Axons one transmit impulses ECM is mostly ground substance mostly making sure that sodium potassium pump remains at homeostasis Neuroglia support neurons maintaining growth electrical insulation immune function etc Organs 0 Two or more tissues that combine for a common structure and function 0 Example skeletal muscles are organs muscle tissue myocytes and endomysium connective tissue dense irregular dense regular blood Endomysium muscle fiber muscle tissue Perimysium connective tissue Epimysium connective tissue Membranes Thin sheet of one or more tissues lining body surface or cavity Most epithelial tissue resting on a layer of connective tissue 0 true membrane serous and synovial anchor organs in place serve as barriers function in immunity secrete various substances Membrane like mucous and cutaneous perform some of previous functions True Membranes Serous membrane Line pleural pericardial and peritoneal body cavities Simple squamous layer mesothelium basement membrane loose connective tissue Parietal and visceral layer surround serous uid 0 Synovial Membrane Lines cavities surrounding freely moveable joints Example hip knee shoulder elbow 2 connective tissues 0 Inner synoviocytes Secrete synovial uid Outer loose and dense connective tissue Membrane like 0 Mucous mucosae Line all inner body surfaces that open to the outside of the body Example respiratory passage Epithelial layer and goblet cells basement membrane and loose connective lamina propia Cutaneous Skin 0 Largest organ Epidermis keratinized strati ed squamous Dermis