Normative Ethics PHI 192
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 192 at Syracuse University taught by Ryan Hubbard in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Moral Theory in PHIL-Philosophy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Normative Ethics Doing the Right Thing 1012015 Religion and Morality Three Assumptions lReligious belief is need to get us to do our duty lMorality must be created by someone God is the best candidate for the job lReligious wisdom is the key to providing us with moral guidance 1 Religious Belief is needed to get us to do our duty a Without a belief in the afterlife people would lack the motivation to avoid immortality b This wouldn t show that God existed only that religious belief has practical benefits Problems 0 Afterlife isn t a motivation for helping or doing something right 0 Genuine Moral Character is wanting to do the right thing 0 Atheists and Agnostics are capable of this as well 2 Morality must be created by someone God is the best candidate for the job Every law requires a law maker Moral law then requires a law maker Humans are too imperfect to create moral laws Since Humans cannot make the laws then God must Therefore God is the author 9909 DivineCommand Theorv An act is morally required because it is commanded by God Does God command moral actins because they are morally right or are actions morally right because God commands them Arguments Against Divine Command Theory 0 The Euthyphro Argument I Either God has reasons that support his commands or God lacks reasons that support his commands I If God lacks reason for his commands then God s commands are arbitrary and that renders God imperfect undermining his moral authority I If God has reasons that support his commands then these reasons rather than the commands themselves are What make actions right or wrong I Therefore either God is imperfect or the Divine Command Theory is false I God is not imperfect I Therefore the Divine Command Theory is false 0 The Divine Perfections Argument I If the Divine Command Theory is true then a morally perfect God could have created a awless morality that required us to rape steal and kill and forbade us from any acts of kindness or generosity I A morally perfect God could not have issued such commands anyone who did would be morally imperfect I Therefore the Divine Command Theory is false Religion and Moral Guidance lReligion is an essential part of moral guidance Problems 0 Defending belief in God 0 Defending view that God offers moral advice 0 Selecting a Scripture 0 Defending and interpretation of scripture O Reconciling scripture with tradition 1062015 Natural Law Theory of Rightness Conceptual Truth IA truth that can be known just by understanding it need to understand the concept to be known as true DMoral Claims are not conceptual truths because for any moral claim we can completely understand it and still wonder whether or not it is true Empirical Truth IA truth that is known by relying on evidence from the five senses needs evidence to be known as true DMoral Claims are not empirical truths because we don t discover them by means of our senses Natural Law Theory lWhat makes an action right is that it is natural IA person is morally good to the extent they fulfill human nature Conceptions of Human Nature 1 Human Nature is what is innately human Instincts drives rationalityreasoning language compassionsetc 2 What do all human beings have in common What is uniquely human You will always have at least one human who is different 3 Human Nature is our natural purposefunction 2 Models Efficiency Fitness 1082015 The Survival LotterV Thesis 9 It s morally right to kill an innocent in order to save the lives of two other innocents by harvesting his organs Objections 9 Condon s murder 0 His reply Letting XampY die is equal to killing them 9 Would cause Widespread distress 0 His replyGradually implement it 9 Lead to a society with many elderly people because the young people s organs would be the most valuable Killing vs Letting Die There are more problems with this idea than solutions
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