Criminology Oct/9th notes
Criminology Oct/9th notes CJA2225-01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peter Wright on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJA2225-01 at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Joshua Battin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminology in Criminal Justice at Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Social disorganization theory Durkheim this is the backbone of the next exam 0 Always a macro theory no exception Explains control and networks in society and how it impact behavior Collective efficacy theory Robert Sampson If you have enough valued social ties and the willingness to intercede impacts what happens in society Consider this What are you interested in and why What caused you to like what you like Or get interested in something 3 Histories of Social Disorganization theory 0 Early history Revitalization period 0 Contemporary history Another prime example of this was yet again the industrial revolution when everyone was moving in and out all the time in large ux in urban settings Durkheim contributed to this theory with the principal of informal control social control outside of the law like family being a mediator for delinquency Model for this Environment the characteristics of a community Social control Delinquencycrime either appearance or lack thereof Chicago School Robert Sampson again Ideal setting for the breakdown of informal social control due to Rapid social change Population ux And cultural turnover The population in this city for a time doubled every ten years Parks and Burgess Started the idea of social disorganization theory but do NOT have anything to do with criminology Used pant ecology principals invasion dominance and succession Connected the process of plant growth with human immigration rst comes grass then weeds then small trees then big trees The biggerstronger plants take dominance after invading and then succeed the weaker plants Concentric Zone theory Parks and Burgess 5 zones with distinct characteristics 0 1 Central district businesses low crime 0 2 Old city part older buildings just outside of the central district Not repaired much dilapidated high crime shows characteristics of society 0 3 Blue collar 0 4 and 5 Suburban Lower and lower crime rates Parks and Burgess just identi ed characteristics But they did NOT do criminological research on it Shaw and Mckay First criminologist to do said research on Social Disorganization They were students of Parks and Burgess Found areas with high decay lots of transition and low social ties Found a high crime rate there 0 Zone 2 was dubbed quotzone of transitionquot lots of people going in and out not making social ties Found link between delinquency NOT crime associated with high poverty unemployment and residential mobility homeownership apartments rented out in the area etc 0 Speci c areas had consistently higher number of delinquents Racial heterogeneity mixed races in an area coupled with the above factors Social control and social ties were NOT studied by Shaw and Mckay They did NOT measure informal control along with this They only found connections Zone Showed consistently high poverty racial heterogeneity delinquency and transition New contributions 0 1942 Shaw and Mckay published a book 0 1989 was the rst time socia disorganization was fully exploredmeasured Criticism of Shaw and Mckay No direct link between zone variables and residential mobility with crime and delinquency Argued that full mode wasn t tested and measured quotPovertyunemploymentethnic heterogeneityresidential mobility informal social control Delinquencyquot one thing leads to another in the form of a negative one goes up one goes down reationshipquot Chicago area projects CAP 22 communities 6 areas received funding to Solicit community organizations And Improve physical degradation of community It was a 25 yearlong faiure because America is not good at that kind of thing Kornhauser 1978 0 Transition diminishes the ability of a community to regulate behavior 0 Until these behaviors become customaryaccepted crimedelinquency occurs more Subcultures are formed quotquotThisquot work was instrumental in showing how the community variables translate into physical action informal social control and ultimately impact crime and deanuencyquot Revitalization period A discussion of how to measure informal social control and social ties Stark 1987 Discussion Density close proximity causes people to learn undesirable things about one another and leads to social strain but not crime Bursik 1984 Discussed in various submitted articles of how to just measure informal social control which was the core of the period First complete test of social disorganization Sampson and Groves 1989 The start of contemporary history Exogenous sources Low socio economic status ethnic heterogeneity residential mobility family disruption urbanization leads to lntervening constructs social ties Sparse local friendship networks unsupervised teenage peer groups low organizational participation If this part is SKIPPED it is NOT a social disorganization theory leads to 0 Outcome measures crime and delinquency quotThese researchers found support in this modelclaim Step 2 can be skipped over but only if the model is applied again after the initial theorizingquot Conclusion 0 Areas with high exogenous sources have high crime rate and victimization Sparse interventions constructs high crime and victimization Exogenous sources were found to mediate level of intervening concepts substantiating full social disorganization model Expansion of social disorganization Elliott et al 1996 0 Social ties theory can39t be complicated keep it simple Informal social control elements includes the obvious quotCriticisms of this contemporary theory said that combined informal social control and social ties collective ef cacy And that the theory had to be less intense overallquot Theory of collective efficacy Sampson Ravdenbush Earls 1997 Attempted to improve the social disorganization theory 0 First half of the complete model Concentrated Disadvantage all but residential mobility which was a separate category As this goes up so does crime positive relationship Collective ef cacy The second half of the complete model As it goes up crime goes down negative relationship Informal social control willing to intercede quotThis theory operates in the same way as social disorganization and it is an improvementquot quotWhy was this considered an improvement Because we re ned our de nitions and linked elements of the model together in a more effective and easier to understand wayquot quotActual participation willing to support provided little supporthelp to the situation Just being willing wasn39t good enough and either was actual support Willingness was a step in the right direction but it takes far more than that to be effective in stopping crimequot Gibson Zhao Lovrich and Gaffney 2002 Willingness to intervene Likelihood of adult accountability and police contact 0 Social cohesion and trust Wells Schafer Varano and Bynum 2006 Intervention Responsibility of safetyactual surveillance 0 Social cohesion and trust neighbor assistance Overview 0 Outcome variables 0 Research that replicateexpand collective ef cacy because it is extremely limited 0 The same studies have been used over and over so it does not expand A willingness to intercede could include many different behaviors Social Capital 0 All the good parts of the social disorganization theory AKA Collective Ef cacy lntervening constructs the social connects middle part of the model ts into the social construct to expand collective ef cacy 0 Feeds intoinforms the informal social control Social capital and collective ef cacy 0 Social tiesinformal social control 0 Levels of commitment and obligation These are ways to assist in expansion
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