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Week Two Notes

by: Alyssa Notetaker

Week Two Notes Eng174C

Alyssa Notetaker
GPA 3.8
Contemporary American Fiction
Allison Carruth

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Contemporary American Fiction
Allison Carruth
Class Notes
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Eng174C at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Allison Carruth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Contemporary American Fiction in Foreign Language at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 10/10/15
Week Two Lecture 3 Terms 0 Unit of Analysis 0 The thing you re studying o What re you looking at What object are you studying an object that stays constant 0 It s the focus of the project Variable o What changes EX work habits in summer vs work habits in fall Unit of analysis is work habits variable season 0 Measurement 0 The process of assigning a numeral or label to the unit of analysis in order to measure it Ex unit of analysis 5 kids studied over 3 weeks 0 Allows for conceptualization carifying what you re going to do makes it operational makes it something you can actually look at and measure gives it a complete plan makes it doable Spurious correlation random chance that causes 2 things that are not causally related to be correlated 0 Correlation is just a statistical measurement tells us the numbers we observe tend to move in the same way Positive correlation when x is high y is likely to be high Negative correlation when x is low y is likely to be high Does NOT mean it s causally related Research Design cont d Theories and hypotheses cont d 0 Why do we have to make a hypothesistheory rst Why not just do it and see what happens You have to have something that you can disprove or support If you measure enough stuff something will be statistically signi cant but it could be chance correlated but not causal So we need a hypothesis to guide us to say I think this will happen because of this stuff I ve noticed and makes sensequot so it s more likely it s signi cant and not just chance 0 Theorieshypotheses are usually about the relationship between 2 variables Praba b ilitg Very UiHl39HEW abserva n39s xi M So the hypothesis is usually that there is a positive or negative correlation that is causal We can see the correlation with data and numbers But we can only try to INFER from that data that it s causal having a theory beforehand helps that inference s chances of accuracy CAUSALITY Social science research is concerned with understanding not just what happens but WHY Why Because in social research we often try to solve social issues which necessitates knowing the cause of the problem EX Are your friends making you fatquot is a study on causality 0 Uses data on a social network for a whole town Framingham to see in uences of connections family and close friends on their weight health happiness etc Found positive correlation in neighbors neighboring connections so family and close friends behavior 0 Makes clusters when graphed The correlation extended to three degrees of separation you re affecting your friend s friend We can use that correlation to infer causality infer social in uence 0 To do so have to ask two queonns 1 How do we know there are non random clusters In other words is it statistically signi cant 0 Hypothesis testing Ttest P value etc After calculating the observed correlation we use a Ttest to calculate how likely it would be to get a correlation that high randomly How the Ttest works it simulates a bunch of random connections and sees how likely it is O 0 Most likely SEi39ll39 H EFF U 39J39H Z39W I ME absewati39ms DDSEWEH are Plum 3 Fla 1 Set of Possible Results quotF A pM39EIILIE shaded gl39EiEI39I area is the prubaibilitgi if an observed or more extreme result arising bu chance to get each level of correlation The smaller the chance of getting the correlation you got or higher the more likely it is that it s causal o The clusters were signi cant not random the close connections were more likely to share behaviors How do we know the clusters were caused by in uence 0 This is hard due to several factors 0 How do we know the friends in uence the behavior rather than the behavior in uencing whether or not they re fnends If the latter happens the behavior causes the clusters rather than the friends in uencing their connections behavior An endogeneity issue L endogeneityquot means being in uenced within the systemquot so your internal preferences in uence who your friends are Possibility that x doesn t really cause y y actually causes x Hard to separate have to consider this reverse causa on o Possibility of external factors aka confounding variable Ex 2 people are friends because they re coworkers and both are sad because the company goes out of business Their friendship is not due to sadness but neither is the sadness due to their friendship Solution for this is measuring and controlling for the confounding variable 0 In short 3 causal possibilities in uence endogenous or confounding In uence friends in uencef ends behavior Endogenous Behaviors in uence connections Confounding neither of the above Some ways the study tried to prove causality in the correlation 0 Looking at the relationship Mutual friends contactperceived friends or subjectperceived friends Found that mutual friends affected each other the most but all of these connection types in uenced each other 0 Education level 0 Immediate neighbors Immediate neighbors weren t as likely to be affected by your behaviors l it s less likely there s an environmental confounding variable so it s more likely the affects are due to social connections The Bad News 0 No way to know if the correlation is truly causal in practice because we can never recognize and control for all variables 0 Best way to solve this issue randomized controlled trials Ex a trial used social media to see if more people voted when they saw online which of their friends voted Big Data 0 Answer yes 0 How controlled Some I votedquot buttons online showed friends who voted some didn t but otherwise were the same they also were shown on many many feeds randomly controlling for confounding variables 0 Checking who said I votedquot on social media and who actually voted 0 We know they were friends before voting so weren t friends because of voting so not endogeneity Does the new availability of huge amounts of data make the scienti c method obsolete make it so correlation is enough Issue with just correlation before big data you need causation if you want your ndings to hold in a different population for it to be able to be generalized But the new argument is that with big data the data set the population is EVERYONE so the correlation doesn t need to be 0 generalized This is still problematic though Polls people lie poll could show bias in polling more people from a certain demographic sample bias Data sets can be biased Questions asked can be biased Gallup tried to get a representative sample to eliminate sample bias randomly choosing enough people from each demographic to mirror the population of the US 0 Still isn t perfect Another issue might look like there are more shark attacks than ever before but look at how there are also more people in the water than ever before 0 Same idea with big data more people on the internet since its start Google Search s inception l fraction of people who search for a certain term lessens over time Predicting with web search data 0 Using search data to predict makes the prediction more accurate but only slightly 0 Google tracking the u Worked really well But then it didn t anymore 0 Used only correlation Assumed it would continue working in other time periods than the one they made the algorithm for Lecture Four Measurement What are you measuring 0 You have to de ne it clearly 0 De ne subjective and qualitative terms in ways that make it measurable quanti able Ex with a theory that your happiness affects that of your social contacts you need to de ne happiness and social contactsquot clearly and fully in quanti able ways 0 Makes it clear what you are going to look at and measure Conceptuaization and operationalizing Strictly de ning variables into measurable factors 0 De ne ALL key concepts your de nition can affect what your results are Operationalizing Versus conceptualization o Conceptualization is de ning and specifying abstract and fuzzy concepts Concepts have indicators and dimensions 0 Dimensions speci able aspects of a concept Indicators something the researcher chooses to recognize as a re ection of the variable being studied 0 Makes it more feasible to study something that is not directly observable 0 Ex using smiles to indicate happiness 0 Operationalization is the development of speci c research procedures that will result in empirical observations representing those concepts in the real world An operational de nition speci es precisely how a concept will be measured Some parts of operationalization Determine research method 0 Observations 0 Survey Remember that determining the wording of a questionnaire is important 0 Experiment 0 Looking at archival materials data or information that has already been collected 0 Case study 0 Consider the population and sampling 0 Random sampling is it representative of the population etc 0 Consider how broad the concept you want to study is 0 De ne variables and attributes make them measurable Levels of measurement 0 Binary Q g Ratio Aka dichotomous Nominal Aka categorical discrete multinomial Give categories but there s no order to the categories Ex quotWhat religion are youquot 0 Possible answers are 1 Christian 2 catholic 3 protestant 4 hindu 5 muslim 6 Jewish 7 other 8 none Ex hair color EX nationality Ordinal Aka categorical discrete multinomial Give categories but they have an order EX satisfaction levels on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being dissatis ed and 5 being completely satis ed Interval Aka continuous can take on any value in a range EX measuring cortisol levels temperature placing politicians on a scale of liberal to conservative IQ score 0 You can compare the variables cortisol levels politicians degrees but can t say one is twice the level of the other can t say Hillary Clinton is twice as liberal as Donald Trump 0 You can see the difference between 2 measurements but can t make it a ratio Aka continuous But in addition to being like interval there is an absolute zero 0 So you can say something is twice as much as something else EX wealth measurements age length of time MeasurementQuality 0 Reliability Consistency little variation ldea that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same type We can increase reliability with increased range of measurement using multiple indicators EX a scale is reliable objective opinions on a topic are not Q Validity How close is your result to the truth Closer more valid Valid when the measure accurately re ects the concept it is intended to measure 0 Face validity it makes sense at face value it s reasonable adheres to common sense Criterionrelated validity the degree to which a measure relates to some external criterion 0 Construct validity asks whether the various measures for a given concept all seem to correspond to the same thing 0 Content validity the degree to which a measure covers the concept it operationalizes 0 Ex using a weight scale to measure intelligent is very reliable but not valid at all 0 Ex using cortisol levels to measure happiness is reliable but would only be valid if you re measuring the subject s happiness at that time rather than over the past year or something 0 Error 0 Systematic error lt s systematic the level of the error is always the same Ex when a scale is off and always adds an ounce to what is being measured EX when a ballot is made so it looks like to vote for someone you punch the second hole but really you should punch the third Sources of systematic error 0 Social desirability 0 Way to minimize this bias Instead of asking the subject about their own views or supposed actions give a hypothetical situation about a stranger Ex in this certain situation what do you think this person a stranger madeup person would do Anchoring o The tendency to rely too heavily or anchor on one trait or piece of information when making decisions 0 Usually the subject focuses most on the rst piece of information we get from them Acquiescence agree vs disagree 0 People are more likely to agree 0 Order effects o If you ask a series of questions or have a list to choose from people are affected by which questions comes rst Can bias the results 0 Random error Usually cancel each other out 0 Error observed value true value systematic error random error Week Two Lecture Four Othello Comedy vs tragedy We get to a place where there s a setup for a perfect Shakespearean Comedy 0 In a realm of an old father who doesn t want the 2 lovers to marry o Lawperson Brabantio 0 He has to go to war 0 There s a big storm threat of shipwreck Both of the lovers survive the storm at sea and end up together in Cypress l celebration of the nuptials of Othello and his defeat of the enemy cute couplet about going to bed with his new wife Act 2 Scene 3 o BUT THEN Enter lago 0 Evil villain makes us complicit in the wrongdoing We re the enemy of love 0 We don t know what lago s up to until he does it Act 2 Scene 3 lago makes Cassio awkward talking about Desdemona s assets 0 Cassio tries to keep it nice lago makes it raunchy o ago testing the waters making himself the downtoearth guy the gure of male camaraderie 0 Testing what Cassio could be drawn into Softens him up to create a problem raunchy jokes off kilter bullying him to drink Diminishing Othello s con dence in Desdemona Theological perspective 0 Desdemona is the angel Othello is the everyman lago the devil the tempter o lago perpetual enemy of love trust friendship o Desdemona perpetually encouraging trust and friendship and generosity o Othello is in the middle Generous nature on one hand a man of violence on the other Pagan by birth and Christian by conversion 0 How to reconcile the cultures Foreigner in Venice yet also a patriot of Venice 0 As a foreigner is exotic but so he s also vulnerable to the voices of Venice Iago the decadence of it Fighter and lover Commander of army and servant of the senate o Desdemona reminds the audience that you don t have to be of the character s race to identify with them relate Point that we recognize the problem that there s a destiny waiting out there for you no matter who you are Possibility of a tragic aw 0 And the tragic aw is different for each Othello would have no problem with Hamlet s issue per se 0 Shakespeare plays off the idea that something about you could destroy you and that thing is also likely close to what is great about you 0 What Iago does 0 Animalistic depictions of sex to Brabantio Brabantio goes out in a lynch mob racist mob to punish the quotblack ramquot who tupped the quotwhite ewequot Looks like lago might get his desires Othello redirects the racist passions with calm reason 0 The dew will rust your swords You can take me to prison sure but the senate wants me at war tomorrow 0 Turns the story into a love story and reveals they re actually married already 0 Othello sees Brabantio s racism Brabantio thinks Othello is good enough to ght for the army but not to be with his daughter 0 Uses calm reason against rash racism 0 So lago uses rhetoric and ploys wit to redirect Othello s passion and belief that his wife is the angel to belief that she s the corrupt whore When he believes it quotOthello s occupation s gonequot 0 Like he lost his job Fears of losing respect Being the butt of the joke 0 Tells of how hard it is to believe love when your perceptive of yourself has been damaged 0 lnternalized racism he can believe she would trick him quotHer name that was as fresh As Dian s visage is now begrimed and black As mine own facequot To indicate her fall in his eyes calls her black 0 How Shakespeare deals with Othello losing belief in Desdemona so easily without real evidence lnternalized racism 0 So can believe that Desdemona would trick him o More insecure about sef more likely to be jealous jealousy what is this re ex people have All goes back to an internal core of feeling that something is lacking o Othello lacking whiteness lago jealous of lacking a promotion jealous of Cassio o Puts his own fears and jealousies into Othello Othello and Desdemona also don t really know each other have some big differences 0 she loves him because of his acts in war he loves her because she pities those acts Cassio is the type of guy Desdemona would marry in many people s eyes 0 Same age same status class educated and intellectual white rich When in love you think the other person is the greatest person in the world 0 I Doubts of own merits own worth if you really deserve them ldea that Desdemona had to look past his race and age to love him thinks she s the best l wondering if he deserves her Act 3 Scene 3 0 Turning point 0 Othello starts doubting Desdemona 0 Issues come up Age differences Class differences Different nationalities and races Othello s insecurities of not being a loverboy of being the butt of a joke lago s plot 0 Painting a picture of Cassio looking guilty 0 l Othello questions Desdemona he accepts her answers it makes sense says he loves her and quotwhen I love thee not Chaos is come againquot 0 ldea that all hell will break lose if he doesn t love her 0 l lago enters again 0 raises questions about Cassio in relation to Desdemona and Othello s relationship 0 speaking in the everyman way seeming honest acting as if he doesn t want to say something that could hurt Othello casting doubts on Cassio s honesty by saying he seems honest Iago thinks he s honest Iago talks about how some people seem pure but aren t 0 HOW CAN YOU KNOW YOU CAN TRUST ANYONE o Getting Othello to stop trusting anyone and everyone l it s possible for him to stop trusting Desdemona Iago seems to attempt to change the subject by talking about the importance of reputation l Othello won t let him change the subject Iago is making Othello think it s his own doing that s getting Iago s thoughts 0 calls jealousy a cuckold puts dotes and doubts close together 0 points out how different their ages are how she s whiter and richer and of a higher class than him 0 points out how good she is at convincing tricking men her father Iago acting the defense attorney when he s really the prosecutor Iago makes it seem like he knows more than he says Tells Othello not to think about it 0 So of course he ll think about it Iago can get inside the characters heads nd their vulnerability and use it to get them to do his dirty work 0 Othello s insecurities Cassio s vanity Desdemona s trust and goodness Emilia s stupidity and loyalty to her husband 0 Uses one line to do so a lot quotIs t possiblequot Seeming innocent and unguiling while raising doubts Othello comes back in Iago paints him a graphic picture of Desdemona and Cassio together 0 End of the scene Iago and Othello kneeling together like a marriage 0 Demonic marriage Lecture Five Literary theory 0 Talking about the characters as if they are real have personalities and selfhood is easy 0 Some literary theorists say this is corrupt as they are not real Prof Watson doesn t really agree with this Iago the more we look at him the less we understand Opposites Iago v Desdemona with Iago in the middle 0 Cypress v Venice and the ocean between 0 Murder v mercy and Othello claims he s doing something in between sac ce 0 Heaven v hell purgatory Peace v chaos 0 quotDemand me nothing What you know you know From this time forth I never will speak wordquot 0 A threat to not explain denies the chance to see human motives 0 Not very potent as he s already spoken a lot Motives hatred of Othello and Cassio jealous of them and jealous of Desdemona in a way that his wouldbe promotion could have gotten him women That Desdemona loves Othello Hates Othello loves Desdemona in a vaguely de ned way not lust loves her loyalty jealous of it Thinks Cassio and Othello slept with his wife 0 Is that a backconstruction to justify destroying them Or the root of the jealousy that makes him want to destroy them 0 Iago has sex on his mind but its connections to real people is tenuous Repressed homosexual desire Resents those in happier relationships than his Money from Roderigo just wants to see the world burn Readings of Iago Iago as the force of the evil tempter loose in the world 0 To x it need exorcist Iago as sexually confused mentally disturbed 0 Need psychologist l understanding himself 0 Historical plays the malcontent 0 An archetype in theater where the guy does something and expects to be recognized but is overlooked l decides to rain down hell re until they realize their mistake From a time when no good jobs were free lower classes revolting against getting the bad jobs 0 The quintessential quotnice guyquot Thinks he s nice did something good and as a result is entitled to something When doesn t get it gets mad and evil Iago as chaos O Pulls apart belief that the world could be good that people are capable of an innocent type of love Iago as manipulating himself 0 0 As one who chooses exactly who he wants to be gardens his will to be what he desires The idea of the new man one who can choose who he is what he is l Fears of choosing to be bad or not choosing correctly Iago as an embodiment of all sins and bad stuff 0 O O 0 But is also signifying something that underlies all bad Underlying human evil is a lack of something a hole in the psyche A malignancy where he has to corrupt those around him in order to exist Like a virus living parasitically Evilness as absence a de ciency Iago as not knowing who he is lacking an identity 0 O Iago has sex on his mind but its connections to real people is tenuous thinks he s been cuckolded Uses metaphors where he isn t himself Othello slips between his sheets Cassio wears his night cap 0 This is how the issues started being mad Cassio was given lieutenant instead of him that Cassio took his place LlEUtenant in lieu of in place of o FEELS ROBBED OF WHO HE SHOULD BE OF HIS IDENTITY Resents the perceived robbers Resents especially those who feel at home in who they are know who they are and are happy Iago wavering loving Desdemona but destroying her Echoes of Genesis Paradise Lost Satan seeing Adam and Eve in Eden and could almost love them smiles Then chooses to destroy them Failing the possibility ofjoining those who are happy in their identity Iago chooses to destroy who they are Displace others so they no longer know who they are 0 Othello says his occupation is gone Speaks in third person quotI have no wifequot 0 Desdemona quotNobody I myselfquot 0 quotMy lord is not my lordquot o Cassio quotl have lost the immortal part of myselfquot 0 Iago about Othello quotAll in all in spleen and not a manquot 0 lago when Emilia accuses quotsome eternal villainquot of devising the scheme lago did lago responds quotthere is no such manquot quotI am not what I amquot Echoes Exodus quotI am that I amquot He becomes no man And so sucks everything out of everyone else too 0 Evil as an absence a de ciency Complete absence of God evil lago seems to try to destroy in order to create a new world that never really comes about to quotbring this monstrous birth to the world s lightquot o If we destroy everything can we just start over o If he destroys everything can rebuild world where he is supreme protected the norm where everyone else is just as or more miserable than he is in control The end lago doesn t die 0 Othello stabs him saying if you re the devil you won t die lago says nope I m still alive you can t do anything about me o Is he a devil 0 Evil lives on That which survives is evil prejudice sin We think we have control that happy endings exist 0 This end is showing the chaos of the world Racism and sexism 0 Very prescient lago uses racial epithets to turn people against Othello A need to destroy runs through serial killers mass murderers and like situations even now 0 A feeling of own superiority that they can t be understood of entitlement resentment and jealousy and often unhappiness 0 Does all that disguise a lack of identity A lack of selfhood lsla Vista shooting a couple years ago quotnice guyquot feeling entitled doesn t get women sees women dating mixed race guys l destroying them o Iago Othello quothath a daily beauty in his life that makes me uglyquot felt entitled to the higherjob and to Desdemona even 0 Isla Vista guy jealous of guys happy in relationships hate them and women who don t choose him Assumed own superiority so felt justi ed when he quotpunished them allquot 0 Murder trial years ago last statement to courtroom ends in quotyou can t understand mequot and quotLucifer lives in us allquot 0 Ted Bundy what s one fewer person on Earth echoes quot Tis but a man gonequot 0 A reason to kill that lago gave Roderigo 0 Turned him to his worst denying value of human life Convinced Roderigo to kill Haunting sense that there is a human malfunction that happens in life and is represented in lago o Somebody could be waiting out there with the opportunity to turn the comedy of your life into a tragedy Scary A sel sh human tendency exists to create a huge important and fragile sense of self and protect it at all costs 0 We are all susceptible and some cross a line into protecting the self at extreme levels of destroying others 0 We represent it literarily can t really talk about it otherwise 0 Voldemort and his horcruxes o Sauron and the ring 0 To maintain humanity avoid the evil we are susceptible to have to recognize the line that we can t cross quot Tis but a man gonequot is this that line Turks and human nature 0 The Turkish eet o Threat of destruction of civilization 0 Able to be defeated by war or nature the storm 0 Human evil 0 Lives in us all possibly 0 Can t nd it can t eradicate it don t know who exactly the enemy is 0 Can t defeat it o quotAre we turn d Turks and to ourselves do that which heaven hath forbid the Ottomitesquot lago parallels the Turks The battle is still going on Multiculturalism defensiveness of the human psyche human narcissism l can never nd total peace We with human nature are our own downfall h r Tm grm L WMW E fr a zj k quotrI39E 967 w A i Pia s 39 r J 7 i V v g k j N i 5 ar gag J u L i l i if g A i wswzi e 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