Biology Notes for the Week of 10/4-10/10
Biology Notes for the Week of 10/4-10/10 BIOL 1305 - 010
Popular in General Biology - 15965
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sofia Romero on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1305 - 010 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Hsin-i Lin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Biology - 15965 in Biological Sciences at University of Texas at El Paso.
Reviews for Biology Notes for the Week of 10/4-10/10
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/10/15
Biology Notes for 1041011 108 Lecture Key Red is vocabulary and green is examples Energy is stored in chemical bonds ex food They can be released and transformed through metabolic pathways There are two kinds Catabolic pathways break down large cells Anabolic pathways construct biomacromoecues from wastes There are 5 principles governing metabolic pathways 1 Chemical transformation have a series of intermediate reactions that form a metabolic pathway 2 Each reaction has a speci c enzyme that needs to be catalyzed 3 Many metabolic pathways are the same in all organisms 4 Many metabolic pathways occur in speci c organelles Iysosomemitochondria 5 All metabolic pathways are controlled by enzymes that can be inhibited or activated Energy transforming reactions are usually coupled together An energy releasing exergonic reaction will be paired with an energy requiring endogenic reaction Exergonic reactions release energy and are things such as cell respiration and cataboism Endogenic reactions require energy and are things such as active transport ce movements and anaboism ATP adenine triphosphate is the currency for energy Something with the potential for energy needs to converted into ATP in order to be used ATP NADH and NAPH all carry energy All the chemical bonds in ATP are high energy Energy that is released by exergonic reactions is stored in ATP bonds Once ATP is hydrolyzed energy is released to fuel endergonic reactions The hydrolysis of ATP is ATPH20gtADPPi free energy Hydrolysis of ATP free energy between phosphate group bonds is much higher energy than the 0H bonds that form after hydrolysis Phosphate groups are negatively charged so energy is required to get them close enough to covaenty bond and form ATP There are 2 ways ATP can be formed substrate eve phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation uses redox reactions to transfer electrons otherwise known as an oxidationreduction reaction Oxidation is the loss of 1 electrons Reduction is the gain of 1 electrons OIL RIG Oxidation ls Loss Reduction is Gain Oxidation and reduction always occur together Transfer of hydrogen atoms means transfer of electrons when a molecule loses a hydrogen it becomes oxidized H commonly bonds to C P O and N atoms to become electronegative molecules More reduced more energy Energy is transferred through redox reactions Energy in the reducing agent is then transferred to the group product NAD and NADH are electron carriers An H atom attaches to an NAD which then turns it into NADH It then carries them to a later stage and quotdrops them offquot then turning back into NAD NAD is a key carrier in electron reactions The reduction of NAD is highly endergonic The oxidation of NADH is highly exergonic The released energy can be used to form ATP In cells energy is released in catabolism by oxidation and trapped by the reduction of coenzymes such as NADH Energy for anabolic processes is supplied by the ATP Oxidative phosphorylation transfers energy from NADH to ATP Oxidative phosphorylation combines the oxidation of NADH with the production of ATP NADH gt NAD H 2e energy and energy ADPPi ATP This process is called chemiosmosis diffusion of protons across a membrane which drives the synthesis of ATP Chemiosmosis converts the potential energy of a protein gradient into ATP ATP synthase is a membrane protein with 2 subunits FO is the H channel whose potential energy drives hydrogen ions through F1 has active sites for ATP synthesis Cellular respiration is an important catabolic pathway where glucose is oxidized carbohydrate 602 gt 6CO2 6H2 O chemical energy Photosynthesis is a major anabolic pathway where light energy is converted into chemical energy 6CO2 6H2 O light energy gt 6CO2 6H20 carbohydrate ln cellular respiration a lot of energy is released when reduced molecules with CC and CH bonds are fully oxidized into CO2 Oxidation occurs in a series of small steps along the metabolic pathway 1 Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate oxidation 3 Citric Acid Cycle Cellular respiration only happens in aerobic conditions It can either occur in a series of small steps or with one large amount of activation energy Cellular respiration can produce 32 ATP reaction below taken from PowerPoint 2 ATP 2 NADH 5 ATP 3 NADH x 2 15ATP 1 ATP x 2 1 FADH2 x 2 3 ATP 2 C02 x 2 1 NADH x2 5 ATP 1 C02 x 2 32 ATP Glycolysis has ten reactions and takes place in cytosol Final Reactions 2 molecules of pyruvate 2 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of NADH Pyruvate oxidation is the rst step of the citric acid cycle and the products are CO2 and acetate which the binds to coenzyme A The Citric Acid Cycle has 8 reactions that operates twice for every glucose molecule that enters the cell It starts with acetate CoA and then the acetyl is oxidized with 2 CO2 Oxaloacetate is regenerated in the last step For electron transport ATP synthesis NADH is reoxidised to NAD and O2 is reduced to H20 A respiratory chain is a series of carrier proteins embedded in the mitochondrial membrane Electron transport is where electrons from the oxidation of NADH and FADH2 from one carrier to the other on the chain These oxidation reactions are exergonic and the energy is used to actively transfer H proteins out of the mitochondrial matrix ATP synthase in the membrane uses the H gradient to synthesize ATP by chemiosmosis About 32 molecules of ATP are there for every molecule of glucose Most of ATP is formed using oxidative phosphorylation Under anaerobic conditions ATP is produced by fermentation All fermentation operates to regenerate NAD The overall yield of ATP is only 2 for fermentation Ex Lactic acid fermentation where the end product is lactic acid and NADH is used reduce lactic acid
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'