Psychoneuroimmunology, Coping & Social Support
Psychoneuroimmunology, Coping & Social Support PSY3206
U of M
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY3206 at University of Minnesota taught by T.Mann in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Psychoneuroimmunology September 28 2015 Psycho Beliefs thoughts stress emotions moods etc m Your central and peripheral nervous system Immunology The immune system The Immune System PrimaryJob Defend the body against infectious agents like viruses bacteria parasites First step Figuring does it needs to defend for me it will defend everything which does not belongs to your body Autoimmune diseasesparts of body attacked by immune system Two Types of Immunity 1 Innate Immunity we are born with it already First line of defense Acts very fast Some pathogens might get past 2 Speci c Immunity Speci c attacks for each pathogen Takes time Skin is the biggest immune organ Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis In ammation Cells of innate immunity Innate Natural Killer Cells Natural Killer Cells are soldiers They kill all invaders the same way They will nds cells that don39t look like them Not alike they will destroy them from the inside amp the outside Innate Macrophages Macrophages are Pac Men They kill by eating invaders and digesting them into harmless bits by digesting them Innate Antigen Presenting Cells Antigen Presenting Cells are Tattle Tales They take a piece of antigen the invader and show it to some powerful cells The more important they will gure out who is that individual is amp then they will let the others know Innate The quotphilsquot The quotphilsquot are suicide bombers They die killing antigens Eosinophils Basoths Neutrophils like when we have a cold all of them will communicate with each other thy are very fast quick amp ready all the time Two Types of Immunity 1 Innate Immunity First line of defense Acts very fast Some pathogens might get past 2 Speci c Immunity operate differently they were required Speci c attacks for each pathogen Takes time Speci c Immunity HelperT Cells First step make up an army of them create tons of them Different for each kind of antigen 1015 different kinds They build an army of clones They build Cytotoxic KillerT Cells they are very speci c we have huge amount of different T cells 10quot15 but they are only a small number of them they needs to nd the exact same one of them Speci c Immunity Cytotoxic KillerT Cells They are Jack the Ripper They directly kill or eat their victims Speci c Immunity B Cells BceIIs are Snow White39s Evil Stepmother They use antibodies specially designed poison to kill their victims they make a special poison just for that special kindO problem takes a long time Speci c Immunity Memory Cells Different for each antigen Ready to act fast if encountered again Vaccines take advantage of this speci c one kind of Antigen If the exact same kind comes out again they are ready to go as they rememberO Classical Conditioning Before Conditioning BeII No Response Food SaIivation During Conditioning Bell Food Salivation After Conditioning BeH SaHva on Conditioned Nausea Before Conditioning Sugar Water No Response Drug Nausea During Conditioning Sugar Water Drug After Conditioning Sugar Water Conditioned Animals Day 1 Sugar water amp drug Stop their immunity suppression my Sugar water Nausea Dav 3 Dav 50 Sugar water Control Animals mil 1 Sugar water amp saline mil 2 Sugar water No nausea Dav 3 Dav 50 Sugar water No nausea Conditioned Immune Suppression Before Conditioning Sugar Water Drug During Conditioning Sugar Water Drug After Conditioning Sugar Water Nausea Nausea Nausea No nausea No Response injection injection Immune Suppression Immune Suppression Immune Suppression Ader39s Study It39s hard to measure immune response There is no single measure of it Some measures may show a better response while others show a worse response Some cells inhibit the activity of other cells Take out of those cells You might look for changes too early or too late Proin ammatory Cytokines Immune substances that have many roles In speci c immunity Coordinate the function of other immune cells In innate immunity Lead to in ammation fever increased sleep reduced activity and consumption send immune cells into tissues tissue repair and wound healing Stress and wound healing Study 1 Step 1 Find a group of stressed people and match them to nonstressed controls Step 2 Wound subjects Step 3 Measure interleukin 1 and how long it takes to heal Stress and wound healing Study 2 Step 1 Find a group of students Step 2 Wound students 3 days before exams Step 3 Measure amount of interleukin 1 in blood and time it takes to heal Step 4 Repeat steps 2 and 3 during summer break Acute Stress and Immune Response Find rst time parachute jumpers Take blood 3 times 2 hours before jump Immediately after jump 1 hour afterjump Monitor heart rate continuously Measure sympathetic nervous system hormones continuously Heart Rate After Acute Stress Gets higher as they jump out of the plane Epinephrine After Acute Stress Similar not exactly the same The highest are the same Norepinephrine After Acute Stress Immune Measures After Acute Stress Right after the jump The highest Summary of Acute Stress Results Heart rate shoots up during jump Epinephrine shoots up during jump Norepinephrine shoots up just after jump Natural killer cells increase right after jump Natural killer cells decrease below their starting point an hour after jump Stress and Immune Response The Complex Picture Short term response Many aspects of your immune system are activated in response to the sudden onset of acute stressors Long term response Many aspects of your immune system are suppressed in response to ongoing stressors Coping and Social Support September 30 2015 The Stress Appraisal Process Step 1 Primary Appraisal Is it positive negative or neutral Positive or neutral No stress and appraisal process is over After is over you will move on the to your life Negative Is it harmful threatening or challenging Step 2 Secondary Appraisal Can I cope with the demands of the stressor De nition of Coping A dynamic series of transactions between the individual and the environment the purpose of which is to regulate internal states andor alter personenvironment relations De nition of Coping Cognitive emotional or behavioral efforts to manage the demands of a stressor The Functions of Coping 1 to master or eliminate the distressinducing problem to feel in control of the coding 2 to alter your appraisals of the distressinducing situation quiz exams eg harmful challenging to change the way you think of your stress 3 to reduce the psychological and physiological distress reactions 4 to return to normal or better functioning EmotionFocused v ProblemFocused Coping EmotionFocused make yourself feel better towards the stressor Efforts to reduce or manage the distress from the stressor ProblemFocused speci c adjusting the problem Efforts to solve or alter the stressor Active v Avoidant Coping Active Coping Active efforts to do something about the stressor or its emotional consequences of the stressor actually doing something Avoidant Coping Avoiding or withdrawing from the stressor or thoughts of it from the problems 1 Processing like unemplyfeel anxious interviews 2 Expressing like talk to your fnends Confronting emotions about stressor Denying or avoiding emotions about stressor About how the stress feel avoiding the emotions like talk to yourself its okay to be umemploy Confronting stressor itself to try to solve it actively trying to x it like talk to your friends to try to nd some jobs build up your resume Avoiding stressor itself to try to solve it lying down in your apartment hope someone will help you to x your problem Problem Focusing pretending nothing happen try to get rid of it Putting the Types Together Active Avoidant Emotion Focused Which Coping Style is Best Depends on the situation Do you have control over the situation like unemployment If yes problemfocused and active coping start doing something about it like starts to nd jobs If no emotionfocused or avoidant ls stressor shortterm or longterm If shortterm avoidant is better than active If longterm active is better than avoidant Effects of EmotionFocused Active Coping Studied 92 breast cancer patients Measured emotional processing at baseline Measured emotional expression at baseline how much they are talking about those emotions 3 months later measured distress and health Results three months later More emotional processing More distress keep on thinking like keeps on thinking about those stress More emotional expression less distress and better health it will help as you will have less medical appointments your physical health will improve Stress Mindsets quotStressisdebilitatingquot Stress is bad for me Most people have this mindset they think stress is bad quotStressisenhancingquot Stress helps me learn and grow and makes me stronger This mindset is rare Linked to better health better life satisfaction they think stress will help us grow like a amount of stress not a lot of it Research shows it will help in your work Light humor will help a lot in stressful situation What is Social Support Interpersonal interactions involving 1 Emotional support showing concern 2 Belonging support having people to be with 3 Tangible support providing aid 4 Informational support giving good advice Emotional Support shows concern I know someone who I see or talk to often who would comfort me if my partner broke up with me I know someone who I see of talk to often who I can count on to care about me no matter what is going on in my life someone will care about you amp will hear about your problem Belonging Support If I decided at dinner to take a study break and go to the movies tonight I could easily nd someone to go with me I hang out in a friend39s room or apartment quite a lot have a place to be a group of people you feel you are belongs to Tangible Support I know someone at school who would bring meals to my room or apartment if I were sick I know someone who would loan me money to help pay my tuition if I was in danger of not being able to pay by the deadline like someone can helps you to pay for your rent Informational Support Getting good advices I know someone who I see or talk to often who I would feel comfortable discussing any sexual problems I might have give advice like whether do you needs to see a doctor I know someone who I see or talk to often who I would feel comfortable talking about any problems I might be having adjusting to college life when you have problems a person to talk to like a counselor Three Aspects of Social Support 1 Social integration Do you have social relationships lf no social isolation 2 Social network properties How many relationships do you have quantity What are their characteristics contacts How diverse is your network do you have friends family members school mates etc 3 Function What do the relationships do for you Do they provide support or do they cause con ict did they try to in uence you or help you out Perceived v Received Support Perceived Support The amount of support that you believe exists for you in your social network the perception of amount of work you needed Received Support The amount of support that you actually experience expensive support some people get more support then they predict more perceive support less receive support Social Support and Coping with Cancer Surveys Cancer patients want emotional support nd it most helpful but don39t get it patients thinks it is not enough they want support from friends in the emotional way Longitudinal studies Cancer patients who get a lot of emotional support adjust best more help more emotional support better recovery Intervention Studies Cancer patients put in support groups with other cancer patients don39t necessarily do better Evidence is mixed Breast Cancer Intervention Study Huge success Women with metastatic breast cancer randomly assigned to Support group Outstanding they supper each other a lot many even became friends they will meet outside of the group Wait list control group Support group women lived 18 months longer than control group women How did the support group work Social Support lead to better health Coping techniques help them to learn more Took better care of themselves Became more optimistic Reduced stress Found meaning found the same reasons as why they got cancer Stopped inhibiting personal information Social Support Interventions for Breast Cancer Intervention increased lifespan in 5 of 10 studies Why didn39t it work in the other ve studies 1 Better cancer treatments 2 All cancer patients receive more psychosocial support more than they used to 3 Three of the studies didn39t lead to psychological bene ts so why would we expect them to lead to lifespan bene ts 4 Maybe people don39t want support from strangers in a group and only the very best support groups can get around that become friends turn to the kind of support that they really want Relationships Can Hurt Rejection leads to social pain Distressing experience arising from the perception of actual or potential rejection from close others or a social group social rejected rejected by others feel pain Connection between Social Pain and Physical Pain social isolation die early Consequences of Rejection Mental health social rejected can lead to Health problem Higher rates of depression Increased anxiety Lower selfesteem Physical health Physiological stress response in ammation suppressed immune system Speeds up aging process Mortality risk comparable to smoking amp obesity amp high blood pressure Social Support and Health social relationship more friends healthier Correlated People who are socially isolated get sick more often and die at younger ages than people who have large social networks Reverse causality sick can39t go out Possible third variables personality if you often get sick cannot go out Social Support and Health Reviewed medical records of terminally ill patients living at home 1 Requested volunteer hospice visitor and received visit 2 Requested volunteer hospice visitor but did not receive it 3 Did not request volunteer hospice visitor Who lived longest average 88 days longer Social Support and Health Prospective longitudinal study Followed 5000 adults for 9 years reported subjects die or didn39t die Baseline measured number of social ties Followup recorded when if they died Result The more ties the longer you live Strength of relationship gt smokingdeath lssues Controlled for many third variables Social Support amp Mortality Men amp women socialize less probability of dying smoking bad social support good Social Support and Health Prospective longitudinal study Measured diversity of social networks Gave subjects cold viruses Quarantined subjects Subjects with more diverse social networks got fewest colds less social networks higher chances to get a cold Controlled for many third variables Social Support and Health Prospective longitudinal study Measured diversity of social networks and stressful life events Subjects checked by nurse in lab weekly for 12 weeks if they said they had a cold they will be checked Resu s Fewest colds Diverse social networks and few stressful life events Most colds Diverse social networks and many stressful life events Experimental Evidence Subjects debate against two tough opponents A supporter is present or not lf supporter present subjects show much smaller increases in heart rateblood pressure Two caveats What if supporter is evaluating you Experimental Evidence Subjects debate against two tough opponents A supporter is present or not lf supporter present subjects show much smaller increases in heart rateblood pressure Two caveats What if supporter is evaluating you no support What if the supporter is a dog will have lower stress response Experimental Evidence Hypertensive patients get support or not Support Target family member is trained to be understanding supportive and reinforcing No support Family member is not trained If given support 5 years later kept more doctor appointments more likely to have bp under control 75 v 50 less likely to have died 16 v 30
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