Ch 8 Notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos
Ch 8 Notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos PSY 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Professor Goldinger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Chapter 8 Notes Ch 8 Textbook Notes Three types of behaviors 1 Reflexes o Involuntary response to stimuli o Controlled by nervous system circuits in the brainstem and spinal chord 0 Produce fast reliable responses that promote your welfare 0 Disadvantages inflexible 2 Instincts o Fixed action patterns 0 Inborn patterns of behavior elicited by environmental stimuli o More complex than reflexes and require more neurons 0 Example contagious yawning 3 Learning 0 Relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 0 Experience has different affects at different times in an organism s lifespan 0 Example Slamming on breaks to avoid an accident is actually a learned behavior not a reflex or instinct Learning is divided into three categories 1 Associative Learning 0 When we form connections among stimuli or behavior 0 Helps predict future based on past experience 0 Classical Conditioning Association between pairs of stimuli sequentially o Operant Conditioning Association between behaviors and their consequences 2 Nonassociative Learning 0 Changes in magnitude of response to a single stimulus rather than connections 0 Habituation reduces our reactions to harmless experiences with milder stimuli and saves resources 0 Sensitization increases our reaction to a range of stimuli because of one strong stimulus often in dangerous situations 3 Observational Learning 0 Social learning or modeling 0 Learn by watching another organism s actions 0 Transmitting information across generations CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov Discovered Classical Conditioning doing research on dogs digestive systems Unconditioned stimulus UCS A stimulus that does not require learning for a response Example Food makes a dog drool Unconditioned response UCR A natural behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus without trying Example Dog drooling when it smells food Conditioned stimulus CS A stimulus that has been learned Example The bell rings when there is food Conditioned response CR A behavior that is learned in response to a stimulus Example The dog drools when it hears the bell Acquisition development of the conditioned response requires contiguity proximity in time between the conditioned response and the unconditioned stimulus and contingency correlation between the CS and the UCS and reliable signals Inhibition When the CS predicts nonoccurrence of a UCS using a new signal Generalization Once a CR is successfully acquired organisms tend to respond to stimuli that are similar to the CS Discrimination Allows us to make fine distinctions between implications of stimuli High Order Conditioning CRs occur in response to stimuli that predict the CS allows us to make even more distant predictions about the occurrence of significant events Latent Inhibition Already familiar with CS therefore takes longer time to learn the response to it Cognitive and Biological Influences on Classical Conditioning We don t bother to learn much about new signals that provide no additional information even if they meet contiguity and contingency requirements Learning occurs because of how surprising the association between the CS and the UCS is More learning takes place early in training because the relationship is unfamiliar Taste aversion is a CR that occurs when the sight smell or flavor of food has been paired with illness from the past Pavlov believed that stimuli that met the CS or US criteria could be successfully paired to produce Classical Conditioning but he didn t think about special interactions between certain stimuli Some combinations of CS and UCS are learned faster than others Garcia s experiment with rats changed Pavlov s theory Applying Classical Conditioning gt Overcoming fears gt John Watson s experiment with Little Albert SEE 81 VIDEO NOTES BELOW Watson can raise any child to be an artist using this approach gt Aversion Therapy replaces inappropriate positive reactions to a stimulus with negative reactions example quitting smoking gt Systematic Desensitization Relaxation and imagining gt Extinction flooding or counterconditioning gt Attitudes and Prejudice Classical Conditioning can change attitudes example customers Prejudice is influenced by Classical Conditioning and Latent Inhibition Latent Inhibition helps us focus on novelty and change in our environments Creative people and people with Schizophrenia form new associations with familiar stimuli more easily quotLoosening of Associations VVVV V Video 81 Classical Conditioning 0 James McConnell gt Worked with worms gt Discovered that worms can learn by Classical Conditioning as well without even thinking 0 Ivan Pavlov gt Discovered Classical Conditioning while doing research with dogs gt Extinction Association between the CS and the USC is broken is possible followed by spontaneous recovery Reappearance of the CRs following extinction gt Human Examples of Classical Conditioning Taste aversions irrational dislikes odd turnons gt Classical Conditioning can also be used to fix things like alcohol addiction using a drug that creates nausea 0 John Watson gt Little Albert Experiment with rabbit and a hammer taught 3 year old to fear rabbits and white fluffy things gt Dealt with phobias and irrational fears Ch 8 Textbook Notes Continued OPERANT CONDITIONING 0 Also known as instrumental conditioning the association between ehavrio and its consequences based on environment Behavior produces the outcome 0 Unlike Classical Conditioning with involuntary behaviors like fear and salivation Operant Conditioning deals with voluntary behaviors o Skinner used Operant conditioning for Project Pigeon in WWII o Premack principle free time priorites 0 According to Skinner there are four types of consequences 1 Positive Reinforcement gt Wanting a behavior to increase gt Primary reinforcers are things like food that we are born to want as reward gt Conditioned reinforcers are learned like grades money or for dogs saying quotgoodjob 2 Negative Reinforcement gt Increases behavior with something negative gt Example alarm clock gt Removes unpleasant consequences to increase a behavior escape and avoidance behaviors such as selfharm gt Different than punishments because punishments decrease a behavior rather than increase it 3 Positive Punishment gt Applies aversive consequences to reduceeliminate behavior gt Decreases behavior with unpleasant things like scolding 4 Negative punishment gt Removes something desirable to reduce a behavior 0 Immediate punishment is more effective than delayed punishment 0 Consistency is important For example speeding is not consistently punished o Continual reinforcement gt Reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs gt Best when first learning 0 Partial Reinforcement gt Only reinforced sometimes gt Ratio Based on numer of times the behavior occurs gt Interval Based on a certain amount of time gt Fixed requirements of the reinforcement never vary gt Variable requirements of the reinforcement fluctuate averaging over a certain amount of time Examples gt Fixed ratiopaid every five shifts gt Variable ratio don t know when payoff will occur gt Fixed intervalconstant timing gt Variable intervalmystery timing Extinction in operant conditioning Learned behaviors stop when there are no longer consequences Skinner recommends extinction rather than punishment Ex not rewarding kids tantrums will help them learn Extinction occurs faster following continuous reinforcement than partial schedules because the transition from continuous to extinct is more obvious VVVV Shaping gt Increases the frequency of a behavior that rarely or never occurs gt Method of successive approximation gt Gradually has more requirements in training gt Balancing too much vs too little reinforcement gt Reward for small steps Cognitive Influences gt Latent Learning without reinforcement gt Cognitive maps rats in mazes instantly updated with new information Biological Influences gt Instinctive drift like raccoons washing the coins like their food Social Influences gt Learning often occurs around others likely to learn by observation gt Social interaction improves learning especially with language gt Depends on the presence of others and the complexity of the task Token economy Money is a secondary reinforcement trading money for things of value Behavior therapies gt Uses operant conditioning such as extinction reward punishment to change behaviors gt Example Treatment for autism spectrum disorder language and social deficits use behavioral interventions like chaining to improve individual functioning Imitation gt Copying behaviors that is unlikely to occur naturally or spontaneously gt Albert Bandura s Bobo doll study gt Observed reward and punishment gt Kids imitate aggression gt Mimicry unconscious imitation 82 Operant Conditioning amp More Video 0 Thorndike s Law of Effect gt Experiment with cats in puzzle box gt If the cat did a certain behavior it would be let out o Skinner Box gt BF Skinner gt Chamber to observe animals gt Proposed that consequences of behavior are critical for learning 0 Classical gt Pavlov s dogsdrooling and bell gt Unconditioned and conditioned stimuli gt Respond to environment gt Reactive behavior gt Best with involuntary behaviors o Operant Teaching dogs tricks with treats Behaviors and consequences Acts on environment Instrumental Best with voluntary behaviors VVVVV