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Close Relationship & Health, Bereavement

by: Cassie Ng

Close Relationship & Health, Bereavement PSY3206

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Psychlogy > PSY3206 > Close Relationship Health Bereavement
Cassie Ng
U of M
Health Psychology

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About this Document

Health Psychology
Class Notes
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Popular in Health Psychology

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY3206 at University of Minnesota taught by T.Mann in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 10/10/15
Close Relationships and Health October 7 2015 Are Married People Healthier Than Unmarried People They have better health outcomes than divorced single and never married individuals tends to be marriage effect They live longer than unmarried They are less likely to get colds cancer arthritis heart attacks and suffer from dementia Marriage amp Death from Cancer 30000 adult cancer patients Unmarried people had 25 greater risk of dying from the cancer True even when controlling for confounds those who are unmarried Diagnosed at a later stage of the cancer than married people Received less treatment they don t fell the need to go and see a doctor Marriage amp Heart Attack Survival lnhospital and longterm survival rate of 1400 heart attack patients people already have heart attack Unmarried patients Were more likely to die in the hospital Were more likely to die over the next 10 years both men amp women they will be less likely to survive Gender Differences in Marriage and Health Marriage is better for men than women Women have a 50 increase in their health bene ts if married Men have a 250 increase Married men live 7 years longer than unmarried men they tend to see more doctors Married women live 3 years longer than unmarried women they usually do more houseworks Why Might Marriage be Better for Men s Health than Women s Women are the gatekeepers for family health push husbands to see doctor Men tend to bene t from women s social connections Married men tend to abandon unhealthy bachelor behaviors women tend to have a bigger social networks more social networks healthier Marriage brings more workstress for women and provides a relief from housework stress for men job stress house stress more houseworks on top of theirjob Sexual Orientation Differences in Marriage amp Health Samesex cohabitors are healthier than heterosexual cohabitors divorcees widows singles But Samesex cohabitors are less healthy than heterosexual married people married still have the better outcome general the wealthier you are the healthier you will be How Does Marriage Improve Health 1 Prevents social isolation and social rejection social support it is because the opposite is the worst 2 Buffers against harmful effects of stress 3 Leads to healthier behavior The Role of Relationship Quality Do bad relationships lead to worse health than good relationships If so then preventing social isolation isn t the crucial factor because all marriages prevent social isolation Does Marriage Quality Matter Yes Poor quality relationships are associated with negative health outcomes Higher quality marriage associated with to be a good relationship Better periodontal health Lower blood pressure Fewer PMS symptoms Fewer overall health complaints general Better sleep How Does Marriage Improve Health 1 Prevents social isolation and social rejection 2 Buffers against harmful effects of stress prevents stress did its negative effects in a relationships your partner might provide advices comfort 3 Leads to healthier behavior Evidence for Stress Buffering Hypothesis Rats Rats are less stressed when they have another rat with them stress response goes down stress actions lower not as often as before Evidence for Stress Buffering Hypothesis Monkeys Monkeys assigned to high stress v low stress environment Resu s Monkeys in high stress environment had suppressed immune systems unstable cannot predict as it can happens everyday BUT if they engaged in affiliation behaviors their immune systems weren t as suppressed the closer you are with others the lower of your stress responses like hugging Evidence for Stress Buffering Hypothesis Humans 20 women with rheumatoid arthritis disorder it attack yourself Measured relationship quality support interaction immune system activity disease activity Resu s Women with high levels of stress If they have positive relationship interactions they don t have the expected stressrelated immune and disease activity higher level of stress high quality lower rheumatoid Evidence for Stress Buffering Hypothesis Hand Holding 16 happily married women Shock them while getting brain scan Holding the hand of her husband Holding the hand of a stranger Not holding anyone s hand Holding any hand helped lower stress response Husband s hand worked best the best Evidence for Stress Buffering Hypothesis Hugging For 14 days Did you have interpersonal con ict today Did anyone hug you today Then did a quarantine cold study Resu s The more days with hugs the less likelihood of getting the cold On days with interpersonal con ict increased risk of getting the cold if they weren t hugged Evidence for Health Behavior Model Smokers reported how often their partners provided social supportsocial in uence to help them quit partner can actually help to take care they can make sure their partner are taking good care of themselves like force to eat Resu s For men The more their partner encouraged them the greater their reductions in smoking more attractive For women Their partner s in uence did not help them reduce their smoking less attractive Mixed evidence Evidence for Health Behavior Model Couples selfreported on social control tactics and health behaviors Social control tactics taking away cigarettes not buying junk food asking if they were going to the gym Results the use of direct social control was related to self reported healthpromoting behaviors Do Pets Make us Healthier Why would our pets make us healthier Social resource Belongingness supportyou will never feel alone like won t eat alone Unconditional positive regard they will still loves you no matter what happens Increased activity physical activity Do Pets Make Us Healthier Yes Happier higher selfesteem fewer doctor visits miss work less and are more physically t individual happier fewer doctors appointments Hypertensives given a pet showed lower blood pressure 6 months later No Heartattack victims who owned pets were more likely to die or suffer remission within 1 year of their heartattack The question remains Can Friendships Make You Healthier study from U of M Groups of 3 friends come to the lab put 3 people together Control no instructions Social Normsecretly instruct 2 friends to not eat the cookies without telling the 3rd What does the 3rd friend do while eating with her friends What does the 3rd friend do when alone later Can Friendships Make You Healthier yes Resu s The 3rd friend in the social norm condition ate fewer cookies while eating with her friends feel confuse why the other 2 people don t eat friends can have a strong effect on your eating behavior The 3rd friend in the social norm condition ate fewer cookies while eating alone later Berevement October 5 2015 Death Anxiety 1 Fear of death 2 Death avoidance 3 Death denial 4 Reluctance to interact with the dying The Loss Effect Bereavement especially the loss of one s spouse leads to physical illness and perhaps even death Who are the primary caregivers of dying people Their child 35 Their spouse 30 Their sibling 9 Their parent 9 Someone else 16 75 of the time these people are female Evidence for the loss effect Days of disability Could be due to emotional problems sick drugs even the memories might be bad it did not take out all the good things Symptom reports Could be a reporting or noticing bias depress symptom will increase itself Doctorhospitalvisits Could be because they stopped taking care of self or were pressured to get checkups they will visit the doctor more often Mortality Could be shared environment one members smoke drink eating habit the other one have a higher chance to smoke drink change his or her own eating habit Immune system function Is the loss effect just stress or is it something more Major ness After Losing a Spouse 30 days after losing spouse Twice as likely to have heart attack or stroke than someone who didn t lose spouse No differences at 90 days or a year later Bereavement and Immune Function Study 1 Bereaved women had lower natural killer cell activity than nonbereaved controls nd people whose cells die every month Study 2 Widows had lower natural killer cell activity one month after their husband s death than one month before it extremely stress out KublerRoss Stages of Grief Orderly series of emotions with their grief 1 DisbeliefDenialNumbness 2 Yearning 3 Anger 4 Depression 5 Acceptance Summary of Stages of Grief Results Feelings peak in general order predicted by stage models Acceptance and yearning are most common reactions to loss not disbelief The negative feelings tend to hit their peaks by 6 months post loss The myths of coping with loss Depression is inevitable de natly Not experiencing distress after a loss is indicative of pathology something is wrong with like if you are not experiencing distress Working through a loss quotgrief workquot is necessary confounding a law must get it out the 39grief must work it out people will respond non supportingly as researcher do not have much experience in doing it People will recover from a loss in about a year accident 4 years later Things that don t help bereaved people Discouraging them from openly expressing their feelings about the loss Encouraging them to get on with things to get on with it to move on start dating etc Using scripted support attempts that trivialize the loss try to give reasons of what why happen like you have so much to live for at least you don t have the baby yet otherwise you can always have the other child A Typical Response to Loss Alfred had earlier in the day seen his wife talking with Ika and had wondered what words she might be saying to the widow To refer to the death would be like putting a nger in a wound but how not to mention it And wasn39t it gross to be talking of anything else Alfred mistakenly believed himself to be singularly lacking in what normal people the people in this room were born knowing He thought all of them knew how to feel and what to say Lore Segal Shakespeare s Kitchen people say something they thought they will help but not it s a hard situation no one knows what to say or do Things that do help bereaved people Permitting them to talk about their feelings Interacting with friends who have been through a similar situation Contact to someone who has been gone through more comfortable give advice they will know what to say for comforting Instrumental support Regular contact very helpful as usually start tons of help ater very less help Just being there What have health psychologists done to help bereaved people Interventions usually in groups Social support Counseling Open discussion Write letterscreate memorials Reappraise cognitions Teach skills relaxation coping Pair widows up with longtime widows


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