PSYC 316 Week 7 Notes
PSYC 316 Week 7 Notes PSYC 316
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Chapter 6 Mood Disorders cont d Here s where we left off last week week 6 G C02nitive Model two predominant theories 1 2 3 Learned Helplessness Theorv a Depression develops when people believe that they have no control over their external environment and that they are to blame for their helplessness b This theory is based on Seligman s work with dogs who were shocked and could not escape Beck s Theory of Negative or Depressogenic Thinking 4 related components lead to depression empirically supported a Maladaptive Attitudes selfdefeating that often develops in childhood b Cognitive Triad negatively interpreting their experiences themselves and the outcome of their Jtures c Thinking Errors arbitrary inferences minimizing the positive events feelings 1 Automatic Thoughts constant dark view of experiences Cognitive Treatment may include some behavioral aspects recognizing and changing the cognitive process a Four Phases lt20 Sessions patient works on 1 Increasing their activity and elevating mood 2 Challenging their automatic thoughts 3 Identify their negative thinking 4 Changing their primary attitudes Monday 5 October H ThirdWave CBT eg Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Steven Hayes 1 Focus on learning recognizing and accept negative thoughts and emotions as natural thoughts and emotions not trying to ght or get rid of them and engage in constructive behavior 2 Empirical evidence supporting that it is an effective treatment 3 Exercises a Sentence Completion 4 Break negative associations that create psychological distress and discomfort 5 C02nitive Diffusion 21 Milk milk milk milk milk Doesn t feel like a word anymore b Prior to exercise we have prior associations with words By using the exercise we decrease or diffuse the negative cognitions and associations we have with a word Charlie Sheen WINNING A Class Discussion Find link to Charlie Sheen Explains his behavior Manic I got tiger blood I probably took more drugs than anyone else could handle Everything s perfect o I fixed my mind I have the power Maybe Narcissistic Personality Disorder Showing no empathy ADDADHD people have a greater chance of being diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder and therefore more likely to use drugs and alcohol Many with chemical abuse can develop a personality disorder Mood Swings Find link to diner scene from Silver Lining s Playbook Calm discussion to violent outburst III Bipolar Disorder s l26 current worldwide prevalence Equally common in men and women First episodes are generally seen between 15 and 45 years of age A Mania with Depression an emotional roller coaster B Mania 5 Areas of Dysfunction Emotional active and powerful emotions Motivational sensationseeking excitable Behavioral high activation quick movements loudrapid speech Cognitive poor judgment planning trouble with coherence Physical feeling wide awake while having little or no sleep P BP N C Manic Episode 1 Excitable or irritable mood 2 Increased activity or energy 3 For diagnosis of a manic episode at least 3 symptoms of mania must occur for at least 1 week Symptoms include a In ated selfesteem or grandiosity b Decreased need for sleep c Increased talkativeness or pressure to keep talking d Flight of ideas or racing thoughts e High istractibility f Increase in goaldirected activity or psychomotor agitation g Excessive involvement in risky activities 4 anomanic Episode fewer symptoms that last for less than 1 week Wednesday 7 October 5 l26 current worldwide prevalence Equally common in men and women 6 Equally common in men and women 7 First episodes are generally seen between the ages of 15 and 45 D Bioloeical Models the most adequate paradigm so far 1 Neurotransmitters a Norepinephrine overactivity b Permissive Theory about mood disorders low serotonin activity opens the door for development of mood disorder Norepinephrine decides the clinical presentation Ion Dvsregulation a Neurons re too easily causing mania or not enough resulting in depression Neuroanatomv a Abnormality in the Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum but we do not know why or how these are implicated Genetics strong support for bipolar disorder a Chance of the development of bipolar disorder 1 Monozygotic Twins 40 2 Dizygotic Twins 510 3 General Population l26 in the E Treatment 1 Earlv Attempts a Psychotherapy and antidepressants were not helpful and it was found that antidepressants could trigger a manic episode Lithium and Other Mood Stabilizer now the treatment of choice a 60 of individuals with mania improve on lithium having fewer new episodes b Mood stabilizers can also be prophylactic ie prevent the onset of new symptoms may also help with the depressed states 1 Little is known about howwhy these work c Side effects of Lithium weight gain 1 Experiencing side effects may cause some people to stop treatment and medication PsvchotheraDv a Focus on 1 Medication management 2 Social skills 3 Relationship issues with family spouse friends etc 4 Some research shows that these approaches are helpful as they reduce chances of hospitalization improves social functioning and increases chances of employment Chapter 7 Suicide and Parasuicide Suicide Parasuicide I Suicide A One of the leading causes of death in the world 1 2 1 million each year die by suicide worldwide 36000 in the US B Many more make attempts 600000 1 These are called Parasuicide C These numbers are likely underestimated l 2 Stigma Accidental Death D Suicidal Behavior now considered a disorder in the DSMS l 2 3 Highly Comorbid with MDD Schizophrenia alcohol use disorders etc Have attempted suicide within the last two years Gender Differences a Males more violent means of committing suicide 1 More likely to use alcohol before attempt 2 History of depression 3 Access to firearm b Females more passive methods 1 Drug overdose E Shneidman s Work 1 Suicide is an intentional death the individual makes an intentional direct conscious effort to end their life 4 Kinds of Suicide Seem a Death Seekers intend to end their life b Death Initiators intend to die believing that death is already on its way and that they are just quickening the process c Death Ignorers death is not the end of existence d Death Darers acting in ways that may end in their death I could survive this daredevil stunt or I could die But whatever Another group of Subintentional Death a Person plays an indirect hidden partial or conscious role in their own death Behavioral Pattern of selfiniurv or selfmutilation falls into this category a Individuals who qualify for NonSuicidal Self Iniurv Disorder have intentionally selfharmed at least 5 times in the last year What are the Numbers a Rates vary significantly across context countries and cultures b Religious devoutness does explain some differences across the contexts c Very dif cult to get an accurate estimation 6 What are the Predictors 3 b C d Gender Differences 1 Women have a higher attempt rate 3 times the rate of men 2 Men have a higher completion rate 4 times the rate of women a Greater use of more violent methods than women i Guns are used in around 23 male suicides compared to 40 of female suicides Age risk generally increases with age Social Isolation 1 One study found that 50 who committed suicide had no close friends Divorce 1 Divorced individuals compared to married or cohabiting individuals also have a much higher rate m 1 European Americans have rates almost 2 times greater than African Americans Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans a Exception Native Americans 15 times the national average 7 Triggers 3 Major Life Stressors 1 Combat stress among the more common 2 w of a loved one unemployment natural disaster 3 Social isolation lack of social support 4 Serious illness particularly in individuals in severe pain or with severe disabilities 5 Abusive environments 6 Occupational stress a Psychologists physicians nurses dentists lawyers police farmers and unskilled laborers 7 Mood changes can be subthreshold levels a Increased feelings of sadness anxiety tension frustration anger or shame b Shneidman called this a psychache 8 Thought changes becoming preoccupied loss of perspective a Linked with a sense of hopelessness about the future b Some psychologists identify hopelessness as the strongest predictor of intent c Others have noted dichotomous rigid thinking marked by fourletter word only 9 Drugs and Alcohol a As many as 70 drink alcohol before the suicidal act and approximately 35 of those are legally intoxicated autopsy reports b Other drugs may be involved opiates other depressants but research is still ongoing 10Mental Disorders a Greatest risk are among those with MDD SUDS andor schizophrenia
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