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Psych 100 - Week 6

by: Tram Anh Ton Nu

Psych 100 - Week 6 PSYC

Tram Anh Ton Nu
GPA 3.7
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Dr. Renshaw

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About this Document

Basic Concepts in Psychology
Dr. Renshaw
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tram Anh Ton Nu on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC at George Mason University taught by Dr. Renshaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/10/15
PSYCH 100 106 and 108 This week we covered memory and cognition still talking about the retrieval of memory Cueassisted retrieval using external cues to help remember things 0 Using senses visual auditory olfactory o Encoding Specificity Principle the more similar things are to when you encode something the easier it is to retrieve that memory If you re studying for a test this principle says that you should study in an environment as close to the environment you will take the test in as possible 0 Context dependent similar external environment similar time of day temperature etc 0 State dependent similar internal physical state similar state of consciousness being caffeinated or not etc Moodcongruent recall people are better able to remember things that are consistent with their mood The word mood here refers to the mood of the information 0 Example when you hear sad news you can recall more sad things in your life than happy things Forgetting Theories of whyhow we forget 0 Trace Decay Hypothesis also called decay theory 0 Memory is basically neural trace sequence of neural firing o Overtime the trace fades away if you don t frequently access it o Interference o Retroactive when you learn new information and it interferes with old information Example when you move to a new house over time you start to forget the address and phone number of the first house 0 Proactive old information gets in the way of learning new information Example when you realize you ve been doing something wrong the whole time it is hard to unlearn it and get used to the correct way Prospective memory 0 Trying to remember to do something in the future 0 Why some difficulty can arise 0 Motivation we are more likely to remember to do things we actually like 0 Lack of retrieval cues I These are things like notes or tying a string around your finger to help you remember PSYCH 100 106 and 108 How to improve memory 0 Enhance the encoding process and storage elaborate on information rehearse more often etc 0 Use retrieval cues encoding specificity and visualauditory cues Memory failures 0 Amnesia o Retrograde can t recall past memories 0 Anterograde can t form new memories old ones are still intact however 0 Memory reconstruction o Remembering things incorrectly with great confidence We usually do this with schemas going with what we expect to happen and Gestallt principles making up things to fill in the gaps o Recovered memories 0 Sometimes people repress unwanted memories into their unconscious 0 People are also prone to suggestibility when others can implant some fake memory into their head 0 Eyewitness testimony 0 Research has shown that even when witnessing the same traumatic event people have very different ideas of what they had remembered Cognition Focuses on thinking reasoningproblem solving and decisionmaking Thought Ways to characterize thoughts 0 Concepts grouping things together into mental categories 0 When people come into contact with something new they turn to one of two things I Prototype best example of something a person has in mind comparing prototype to that new thing to see if they re similar I Featuresattributes description of a category seeing if this new thing has the same featuresattributes as the category PSYCH 100 106 and 108 0 People who consider tomato a fruit do so because it has the featuresattributes of a fruit 0 Propositions relationship between concepts 0 Images 0 We tend to process mental images similarly to actual images it involves the same components of the brain as real vision Reasoningproblem solving Ways in which we approach problemsolving 0 Trial and error trying different things to see what works 0 Least sophisticated method 0 Works if a solution exists and the possibilities are only finite I Example if you need to know someone s phone number you can try calling every single combination of the 10 digits in a phone number until you reach them This is trial and error but it is not reasonable in this situation However if you happen to know every digit except the last one trial and error might work well 0 Changing mental representation of problem 0 Approaching a problem in a different way can sometimes help us see new possibilities for a solution 0 Analogies 0 Comparing problem to another similar problem we ve once encountered Vulnerabilities 0 Mental set a way of thinking 0 Functional fixedness stuck in thinking about an object s function as only one possibility 0 Example a lot of people will simply see a paper clip as something that keeps paper together However it can also be used for many other things like picking lock and creating jewelry 0 These vulnerabilities can be overcome by thinking creatively PSYCH 100 106 and 108 Decision making We have a tendency to make decisions based on o Heuristics guideline rule of thumb 0 Availability heuristics if we can think of it easily we feel like it is more common 39 Example people are more likely to see air travel as more dangerous than car travel because they hear news of plane crashes more often 0 Representativeness heuristics we come to conclusions about something based on stereotypes instead of statistics 39 Example if you meet a person who enjoys aromatherapy takes horoscopes seriously and attends spirituality group meetings you are probably more likely to think they were a holistic healer than a schoolteacher In reality there are more schoolteachers than holistic healers However you were jumping to conclusions based on what you expect holistic healers and schoolteachers to be like Vulnerabilities Things that make it hard to be objective when making decisions 0 Ignoring base rates 0 Similar to representativeness heuristics we ignore statistics about how frequent something is in the general population 0 Escalation of commitment o The more time and effort we invest into something the harder it is to stop and walk away 39 Example someone who has only been gambling for 20 minutes and lost 20 can stop playing more easily than someone who has been gambling for 20 weeks and lost 20000 0 Preexisting beliefs 0 When you already believe something it is hard to change


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