NTR 241 chapter 5 notes week 3/14
NTR 241 chapter 5 notes week 3/14 NTR 241
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Willins on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 241 at Arizona State University taught by Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
NTR 241 chapter 5 notes Q: The two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid and _______ o Alpha-linolenic acid Q: Which of the following criteria are triglycerides not classified by? o Number of glycerol “backbones” Q: The 3-carbon backbone found in all triglycerides is ______ o Glycerol Q: Most body fat is stored as what type of lipid? o Triglycerides Q: What is recommended daily fat intake for someone consuming a 2000 calorie diet o 55 grams Essential fatty acids o Essential fatty acids (EFAs): can’t be made by the body so must be obtained from food Precursors to eicosanoids Have several cellular functions: Regulate inflammation Vasodilation Vasoconstriction o 2 EFAs in our diet Linoleic acid: omega-6 Found in vegetable and nut oils Alpha-linolenic acid: omega-3 Can be converted to a limited amound of EPA and DHA Found in vegetables, soy, flax seeds, walnuts EPA and DHA fats o 2 other types of omega-3 fat: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) o Found in fish, shellfish, and fish oil o Play role in reducing risk of heart disease by: Reducing inflammatory responses Reducing blood clotting Reducing plasma triglycerides Phospholipids o Phospholipid structure differs slightly from TG: Made of glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate Soluble in water Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail (lipoprotein that can carry fat and cholesterol) o Functions: Transport fat in bloodstream Regulates substances entering and leaving cell Act as component of bile o Food sources: egg yolks, soybeans, peanuts, emulsifying agent in processed foods and salad dressings Sterols o Sterols contain multiple rings of carbon atoms o Plant sterols appear to block the absorption of dietary cholesterol Fortified food products o Cholesterol is made in our bodies so not necessary to consume in diet o Functions: Component of adrenal and sex hormones, vitamin D Part of bile Digestion of fats o Lingual lipase plays minor role o Stomach mixes and breaks up lipids into smaller droplets Gastric lipase digests few TGs o Majority occurs in small intestine Cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin stimulate gallbladder to release bile Bile emulsifies fat into small droplets Pancreatic lipase enzymes break fat into 2 fatty acids and a monoglyceride Absorption of fats o Digested fatty acids are taken into enterocyte via micelle for absorption o Once in enterocytes, Fas are repackaged into triglycerides and taken up by lipoprotein to be transported through bloodstream Chylomicron: type of lipoprotein produced in intestine to transport lipids from a meal Composed of fatty acids surrounded by phospholipids and proteins Soluble in water o Chylomicrons Travel through lymphatic system Transferred to bloodstream o Triglycerides in chylomicrons must be disassembled by lipoprotein lipase before they can enter body cells Fabulous fat functions o Major fuel at rest o Fuels endurance exercise o Long-term energy storage o EFAs make other compounds o Improve absorption of fat-soluble vitamins o Regulates and optimizes cell function o Protects body o Provides flavors and textures of foods o Contributes to satiation of meal How much fat? o 1 gram of fat provides 9 kcalories o AMDR for fat: 20-35% of calories o Minimize saturated and trans fatty acid intake to lower risk of heart disease Saturated: less than 7% of energy Trans fat: reduced to the absolute minimum o Active people may need more energy from carbs and may benefit from fat intake of 20-25% of total calories Food sources of fat o Visible fats Fats we add to foods Butter, cream, mayo, salad dressings o Invisible fats Fats hidden within foods Occur naturally or added during processing Baked goods, dairy, meats, fast foods o Beneficial fats Omega-3 fatty acids may be low in diets Fish, walnuts, soy, canola, flaxseed o Switching to more healthful fats without increasing total fat intake Use olive or canola oil in place of butter or margarine Select low-fat or nonfat dairy products o Fat replacers Used to lower fat content of foods Found in chips, cakes, cookies May cause GI side effects in large amounts Example: olestra (olean) Cardiovascular disease o Dysfunction of the heart of blood vessels o Can result in heart attack or stroke o Risk factors Being overweight Physical inactivity Smoking High BP Diabetes mellitus Inflammation o Risk can be assessed by analyzing blood lipids include: Chylomicrons: present only after a meal Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Low density lipoproteins (LDL) High density lipoproteins (HDL) o Diets high in saturated fats Decrease in removal of LDLs from blood Increase blood cholesterol levels Contribut