Chapter 14 Continued
Chapter 14 Continued BIO 208
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr.Richard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Microbiology in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Reservoirs of Human Disease Reservoir: the ecological niche of the pathogen that provides a continual source of infection 1. Human population: those that have the disease or those that carry the diseasecausing pathogen but do not have symptoms of disease Asymptomatic infections: important as “carriers” of infection as they can still spread the infection despite not showing signs of clinical disease. 2. Animal: animals that can also carry a pathogen and transmit that pathogen to humans. These are termed zoonoses. 3. Nonliving: includes soil and water. Modes of Transmission 1. Direct: requires close association between infected and susceptible host 2. Indirect: spread by fomites 3. Droplet: transmission via airborne droplets (that travel less than 1 meter) 4. Vehicle: via air, water (travels more than 1 meter) or food 5. Vector: arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes Mechanical transmission: arthropod carries pathogen on feet Biological transmission: pathogen reproduces in vector Manifestations of Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Syndromes Symptoms: subjective characteristics of disease felt only by the patient Signs: objective manifestations of disease observed or measured by others Syndrome: symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition ● Asymptomatic, or subclinical, infections lack symptoms but may still have signs of infection. Epidemiology of Infectious Disease Epidemiology the study of the occurrence and transmission of disease in a population Concepts Incidence: number of new cases during a specific time period (3/11) Prevalence: total number of existing cases at a given time (7/11) Other roles of epidemiology Case reporting: health care workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices Nationally notifiable disease: physicians are required to report occurrence Morbidity: incidence of a specific notifiable disease Mortality:eaths from notifiable diseases Nosocomial Infections ● Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay ● Affect 515% of all hospital patients Preventing Nosocomial Infections •Handwashing •Limiting use of catheters/IVs •Limiting use of broad spectrum antibiotics
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