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Chapter 14 Continued

by: Crysta Meekins

Chapter 14 Continued BIO 208

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > Biology > BIO 208 > Chapter 14 Continued
Crysta Meekins

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more information from Chapter 14
Introduction to Microbiology
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr.Richard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Microbiology in Biology at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 03/21/16
Reservoirs of Human Disease    Reservoir: the ecological niche of the pathogen that provides a continual source of infection    1. Human population: those that have the disease or those that carry the disease­causing  pathogen but do not have symptoms of disease     ­ Asymptomatic infections: important as “carriers” of infection as they can still spread the  infection despite not showing signs of clinical disease.           2.  Animal: animals that can also carry a pathogen and transmit that pathogen to humans.  These are termed zoonoses.          3. Nonliving: includes soil and water.    Modes of Transmission    1. Direct: requires close association between infected and susceptible host  2. Indirect: spread by fomites  3. Droplet: transmission via airborne droplets (that travel less than 1 meter)  4. Vehicle: via air, water (travels more than 1 meter) or food  5. Vector: arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes  ­ Mechanical transmission: arthropod carries pathogen on feet  ­ Biological transmission: pathogen reproduces in vector    Manifestations of Disease: Symptoms, Signs, and Syndromes    ­ Symptoms: ​ subjective characteristics of disease f​elt only by the patient  ­ Signs: objective​ manifestations of disease observed or measured by others   ­ Syndrome: symptoms and signs that characterize a disease or abnormal condition  ● Asymptomatic, or subclinical, infections lack symptoms but may still have signs of  infection.    Epidemiology of Infectious Disease    Epidemiology­ the study of the occurrence and transmission of disease in a population    Concepts    Incidence: number of new cases during a ​ specific time period​ (3/11)  Prevalence: total number of existing cases at a given time (7/11)    Other roles of epidemiology  Case reporting​: health care workers report specified disease to local, state, and national offices  Nationally notifiable disease: physicians are required to report occurrence  Morbidity: incidence of a specific notifiable disease  Mortality:​eaths from notifiable diseases    Nosocomial Infections  ● Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay  ● Affect 5­15% of all hospital patients    Preventing Nosocomial Infections    •Handwashing  •Limiting use of catheters/IVs  •Limiting use of broad spectrum antibiotics   


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