Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes HNRS 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNRS 2010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dawn Shinew in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Critical Thinking in OTHER at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Asking the Right Questions Chapter 10 Are There Rival Causes We cannot determine an intelligent approach to avoiding a problem or encouraging a particular positive outcome until we understand the casual pattern that gave rise to the phenomenon in the first place Rival causes will rarely be as obvious The word cause means to bring about make happen or affect Once you note a casual claim be alert to the rival causes Detecting rival causes can help us better react to casual conclusions encountered in Our everyday personal relationships Past or ongoing world events Results of research studies When you recognize situations in which rival causes are possible you want to ask yourself questions like Can I think of any other way to interpret the evidence What else might have caused this act or these findings If I looked at this from another point of view what might I see as important causes If this interpretation is incorrect what other interpretation might make sense The experts may claim to have the answer but they are not likely to know it The cause is really the result of a combination of many contributory causes Contributory causes help to create a total set of conditions necessary for the event to occur We need to recognize the possibility of different people s having very different causes for the same behavior Explaining an event by relying on causal factors that are insufficient to account for the event or by overemphasizing the role of one or more of these factors Different perspectives or points of view in uence our choices of causes to consider when we are trying to understand why people behave the way they do The more familiar you can become with multiple perspectives the more you will be able to generate possible rival causes for events One of the most common ways for researchers to try to find a cause for some event is to compare groups The problem is that research groups almost always differ in more than one important way Always ask Are there rival causes that might also explain the differences in the groups The question we need to ask is How might these two groups have differed in important ways other than the test preparation they experienced Remember Many factors can cause research groups to differ We conclude that because characteristic X is associated with characteristic Y that X causes Y When we think this way we are often very wrong Remember Association or correlation does not prove causation Confusing the cause with the effect of an event or failing to recognize that the two events may be in uencing each other Failure to recognize that two events may be related because of the effects of a common third factor Remember The finding that one event follows another in time does not by itself prove causation it may be only a coincidence Assuming that a particular event B is caused by another event A simply because B follows A in time A common bias is the fundamental attribution error in which we typically overestimate the importance of personal tendencies relative to situational factors in interoperating the behavior of others That is we tend to see the cause of others behavior as coming from within their personal characteristics rather than from without situational forces Be wary of accepting the first interpretation of an event you encounter We must accept the fact that many events do not have a simple explanation The more plausible the rival causes that you come up with the less faith you can have explanation offered at least until further evidence has been considered Their logical soundness Which ones make the most sense to you Their consistency with other knowledge that you have Their previous success in explaining or predicting similar events The extent to which the explanation is implied by a greater variety of accepted truths than other explanations The extent to which it has been disconfirmed by fewer accepted beliefs The extent to which it explains a larger number and variety of facts than competing explanations This entire process can be overwhelming We suggest you break it down into steps Once you decide on an issue your next step is to brainstorm potential answers to the question One excellent way to approach the task is to adopt the questioning attitude of an annoying 5 yearold In other words keep asking why Your friends classmates and other people in your life can help you during the brainstorm stage
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