BIO 104 - Chapter 7 Notes
BIO 104 - Chapter 7 Notes BIO 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Biology 104 Chapter 7 Notes DNA Structure and Replication Lecture Book Question 10 on Exam 2 The answer is going to be D The nucleus is where the DNA lives provides protection and organization for the DNA DNA is instructions for making proteins the instructions are all about a sequence of nucleotides the proteins rely on a 3D structure Chromosomes is basically a big long strand of DNA usually coiled up to fit in the nucleus every cell has 23 different kinds of chromosomes and we have two of each one 2 chromosome 1 s 2 chromosome 2 s one from mom one from dad There are about 23000 different genes on 23 different chromosomes 3 billion nucleotides Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA never worked with science or in a lab but took notes and articles from library collections and other peoples work and would think about the structure of DNA stole Rosalind Franklin s work and they won a Noble Prize Every nucleotide has a deoxyribose sugar a phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases Erwin Chargaff studied the nitrogenous bases of DNA A and T always pair together C and G always pair together Rosalind Franklin Xray diffraction studies of DNA showed that the structure was likely helical involving two strands that run in opposite directions and that the phosphate groups were on the outside of the molecule No Noble Prize for Rosalind Every Nucleotides have these three components 1 Deoxyribose sugar 2 Phosphate group 3 AGT or C Base 3 billion Proteins do work makes traits Nucleic Acids contain the information on how to make the proteins is the hereditary molecule that is common to all life forms from bacteria to plants to humans and that is passed from parents to offspring DNA creates the instructions to how we are built DNA is found in chromosomes which are a single large DNA molecule wrapped around proteins and they re located in the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in the vast majority of their cells 23 are from the mom 23 are from the father equaling a total of 46 The 23rd chromosome decides your sex Bitemark and hair analysis can be difficult to prove because there are no widely accepted rules or standards to govern its use and specifically with hair it can be difficult to prove if the hair is even human are the building blocks of DNA Each nucleotide consists of a sugar a phosphate and a base The sequence of nucleotides As Cs Gs and Ts along a DNA strand is unique to each person A is the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together With the exception of identical twins no two people share exactly the same order of DNA nucleotides DNA pro le is a visual representation of a person s unique DNA sequence is the natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule the two strands of nucleotides in a DNA helix do not pair up randomly but in consistent pattern A pairs with T and G pairs with C is fitting together two strands of DNA are said to be complementary in that A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C Steps of DNA replication 1 The helix is unwound and the two strands unzip from each other 2 An enzyme called DNA polymerase builds a new strand of DNA along each unzipped strand free nucleotides oating inside the cell s nucleus are added to each new strand in a sequence that is complementary to the nucleotide sequence on the original template strand DNA replication is said to be because each newly made DNA molecule has one original and one new strand of DNA is a laboratory technique used to replicate and thus amplify a specific DNA segment are sections of a chromosome in which DNA sequences are repeated is a laboratory technique that separates fragments of DNA by size References Works Cited Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print