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Organizational Theory

by: Leah Burkett

Organizational Theory PAD 3003-01

Marketplace > Florida State University > PAD 3003-01 > Organizational Theory
Leah Burkett
Public Administration in American Society
Jiasheng Zhang

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Public Administration in American Society
Jiasheng Zhang
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Burkett on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PAD 3003-01 at Florida State University taught by Jiasheng Zhang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 10/10/15
Organizational Theory The Classical School Scienti c Management 19101924 Timeandmotion studies to eliminate waste in productivity and 1937 PODSCORB planning organizing directing staffing coordinating reporting and budgeting o quot14 principles of Managementquot 1916 Division of work authority discipline unity of command unity of direction subordination of individual to common interest remuneration of personnel centralization scalar chain hierarchical structure order equity stability of personnel initiative and spirit de corps The Neoclassical School 192051950s1 1946 1948 Valuefree research undermines ethics and morality 39 1957 Weberian Bureaucracy con icts with democracy and quotforma compromises administration capacity leads to org m zat on5 7 Comm disrupt formal organizations 1949 Informal organizations within the formal organization can buttress he formal org s goals and functions 1938 Executives should offer momentary and nonmonetary incenUves The Human Relations School 0 The human relations school started in the 19205 with the Hawthorne experiments an lasted until the end of the 19505 This movement placed emphasis on affective and socio psvcholodical asbects of human behavior in organizations 0 Generally suggested 1926 1943 That there is a hierarchy of needs that is lowerlevel needs must be satis ed in order to achieve higher Social level needs Friendship family 157arguedt a e rmal organizationwith its chain of comm nd control and specializationcan create frustration and feelings of failure New workers will learn to not become quotrate bustersquot and thus perform mediocre Solution workers should participate in determining the scooe of their work and resoonsibilitv Safety gt Security of body employment resources L Basic Psychological Breathing food water sleep etc Contemporary organizational theories Structural theory assumes there is a quotbest structurequot Mechanistic structures work in stable environments while organic structures are best for unstable changing environments Systems theory Organizations consist of inputs processes outputs and feedback mechanisms Small qualify control groups rst implemented in Japanese rms to emphasize continued improvement Organizational Economic Theory Concerned with the con icting interests between workers and managers captured in the principalagent model or Agency theory Workers will not always strive to achieve organizational goods agents workers often have more knowledge than principals managers which workers can use t their advantage 1 monitor workers and 2 align incentives of managers and employees Organizational Culture Behavioral regularities when people interact Group norms and values A guiding missions and formal rules that dictate what is and is not appropriate behavior Climate and environment Shared skills and modes of thinking Organizational Theory ll The Classical School POSDCORB Planning that is working out in broad outline the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise Organizing that is the establishment of the formal structure of the authority through which work subdivisions are arranged de ned and coordinated for the de ned objective Staf ng that is the whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintain favorable conditions of work Directing that id the continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in speci c and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise Cocoordinatind that is all important duty of interrelating the various part of the work Reporting that is keeping those to whim the executive is responsible informed as to what is gong on which this includes keeping himself and is subordinates informed through records research and inspection Budgeting with all the goes with budgeting in the form of planning accounting and control POSDCORB principles were instrumental in highlighting or limits on the number of people one manager could supervise as well as to the elds of management and public administration The Neoclassical School Administrative ef ciency is increases by A specialization of work Arranging the group in hierarchy of authority Limiting the span of control Grouping the workers or purpose of control purpose Process Clientele Place Physical impossibility but specialize in that particular manner and along those particular lines Physical impossibility but incompatible with the principle of specialization In large organization with complex interrelations between members a restricted span of control inevitability produces excessive red tape Completing bases of organization and at any given point of division the advantages of three must be sacri ced to secure the advantages The description of of the fourth administrative situations Develop a set of concepts that will permit the description in terms relevant to the theory of administrative situations These concepts to be scienti cally useful must be operational that is their meanings must correspond to empirically observable facts or situations 0 The diagnosis of administrative situations The factors that will determine with what skills values and knowledge the organization member undertakes his rom these are the limits to rationality with which the principles of administration must deal 0 Assigning weights to the criteria The human relationm o The giving of orders advantages if exercising power that organizations should functions on the principle of power with and not power quotoverquot Originator of many ideas today commonly accepted core concepts in organizational theory and PA including negotiations power haring and employee participation power with rather then power over 0 She characterized organizations a group networks rather than hierarchical She was an antiinstitutionalist and a strong behaviorist Contemporary Organizational theorie o formalized collectivities oriented toward speci c goals Classical school viewing organizations as deliberate purposeful Individual focus explanation of how goal speci city and formalization occur through individual decisionmaking focus on timemotion studies of individual worker Structural focus 14 management principles Weber s ideal type bureaucratic structure 0 collective seeking to survive Systems focus organizations have multiple goals at one time Organizational goals can be impeded by the system s need to survive Looking a broader issues of motivation implementation organizational behavior informal structure not formal aspects of decisionmaking internal structure Organizational Culture Uniqueness of organizational culture Cultural differences between rms in the same industry cn be just as great as culture differences across industries 0 Objective and subjective organizational culture Subjective refers to the shared patterns of beliefs assumptions and expectation held by organizational members Objective refers to the artifacts created by and organization While objective culture may contain similarities across organizations subjective culture is unique to a particular organization Organizationalsubcultures Organizational countercultures


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