Complex Webs of Community Interactions on Coral Reefs
Complex Webs of Community Interactions on Coral Reefs bsc 1005
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Burkett on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bsc 1005 at Florida State University taught by Carolyn Schultz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Complex Webs of Community Interactions Organisms are in uenced by physical chemical factors and also interact by Competition Two or more organisms require the same limiting resource Predation One organism consumes another Parasitism Herbivory Mutualism Both organisms bene t from interacting Competition among coral Corals outcompete neighbor s by blocking sunlight Branching and tabular corals grow most rapidly But branching corals are most vulnerable to predators and to damage by storms Corals also compete by digesting or stinging their neighbors High diversity of corals is maintained as each species is favored by different conditions good competitors are ore vulnerable to hurricane damage How might hurricanes increase the number f coral species living on a reef Competition among mobile animal To coexist similar species must differ in A By rearranging the reec frame some Way so there are fewer hiding Similar species can differ by food paces for se urchins habitat behaViOF B By encouraging growth of eshy algae Herbivory Grazing herbivores is essential to c By generating rubble so there reef health are more hiding places for sh Removal of herbivores allows algae to grow uninhibited Edible algae in seagrass meadows is safe from grazer protected by predators In 1983 a Loss of sea urchins to an epidemic and loss of herbivores sh to humans allows algae to smother the coral Settlement of coral larvae is prevented by dense algae The main problem caused by the loss of the longspined black sea urchin to die throughout the In Honda Caribbean is A Fish that normally eat sea urchins had to nd other food Seagrasses bind sediment but 3 Fragile reef areas had been reqUH39e 5U I protected from tourist divers Sponges clear water but are killed by by the tOXiC ed spines of sediment these spines Lobsters require sponges and sea C Lack of competition form grass cascading osses of sea urchins caused herb interdependent specie5 shed to become abundant Overwhelming Predation Too many nutrients Over shing Loss of predators Natural cycles 1 What caused the sponges in Florida Bay to die Killed by sediment 2 What caused the seagrass in Florida bay to die Blinded by sunlight 3 Why did the number of spiny lobsterjuveniles decrease dramatically Less hiding places Intimate Associations Symbiosis The effect of association can be Commensalism neither species is harmed though one may bene t Parasitism one species gains at the expense of the other Mutualism both species bene t Nutrition essential to coral reefs without the coralzoox mutualism coral reefs would not exist 0 Giant clams also rely on singlecelled algae for food and help with skeleton disposition The seaslug grows chloroplasts on its back 0 Many sponges have nitrogen xing microbes Symbiotic bacteria or algae in sponges may increase growth rate or manufacture unusual chemicals Pathogens infectious pathogens have devastated some coral seafan and sponge species Sponge diseases are killing these key lter feeders Cleaning Symbioses Cleaner shes and shrimps pick parasites off hosts Protection from predators l sponges growing on scallops or crabs protect their hosts 0 Sea anemones protect partner shrimp and hermit crabs with their stinging cells 0 Clown sh and sea anemones protect each other 0Crownofthorns star sh often eat small corals but avoid large branching corals Sponges prevent boring organisms from damaging coral skeletons they increase coral survival by gluing living corals onto the reef Conservation implications of mutualism Loss of a required partner species can doom a species to extinction Mutualism can become unbalanced if environmental conditions change Choose one mutually bene cial association that can be found on coral reefs and tell 1 what the two partner organisms are l Commensalism 2 how each of the partners bene ts form association l Mutualism Which of the following is not an example of mutualism on coral reefs A Clown shsea anemones C Spongescorals D Hermit crabssea anemones E Reef building AAII A A mLLAII Ecosystem with many mutualistic association may be more vulnerable to extinction of species because A There are too many species in these systems B Interactions among species are not very complex D Mutualism tends to expand where species can live
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