Psych 202 - Week 2 Reading Notes
Psych 202 - Week 2 Reading Notes PSY 202
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Saturday October 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/10/15
Psych 202 Ch 23 21 Scienti c Method used in Psych Research 4 Primary Goals 1 Description 2 Prediction 3 Control 4 Explanation Use Critical Thinking A skill re ned over time To any claim ask 39what evidence supports this Analyze information what is the source and is it credible Peer Review Peers with similar expertise in area of study review study ndings gt De ne each claim VVVV Ex People drive bad when using a phone Response What is 39using a phone39 Texting or calling Critical Thinking and the Scienti c Method gt Always be a skeptical critical thinker gt Evidence is gained through research collection of data 0 Follow process of the Scienti c Method 0 Use research test theories and hypothesis Theo es gt Should always be falsable 0 Should generate a testable hypothesis gt Tend to be simple and broad gt Good theories lead to a hypothesis that can be tested Scienti c Method 1 Form a hvnothesis a Design tests to examine a theory s predictability 2 Conduct a Literature Review a Look at previous scienti c literatures concerning the theory 3 Design a Study a Decide which research method to use for the hypothesis surveysexperiments 4 Conduct Study a Get participants measures responses b Take care in the size and types of participants studied 5 Analyze Data a Two Main Ways i Describe Data what was the averages and how typical were they ii Draw conclusions from the data what can you infer 6 Report the Results a Unreported results have no value b Scientists publish ndings to the public c Other scientists can build on one s work Scienti c Method is Cvclical gt After experiments and research are done return to the original theory 0 Did the data support it 0 Does the Theory need to be changed or discarded gt Experiments should be repeatable Replication repeating a study and getting the same results Theories should be continually re ned through research Unexbected Findings gt Accidents can lead to big discoveries gt Ex WieselHubel Serendipity The discovery of something important by accident 22 Psychological Research Variable An object that can be manipulated and then evaluated Independent Variable Variable that can be manipulated Dependent Variable Variable that is measured Operational Variable De nition that describesmeasures a variable so it can be understood objectively Descriptive Research gt Observing behavior to describe objectively gt Helps to predict phenomena Basic Tvpes of Descriptive Research gt Case Studies 0 Analysis of unusual person or situation gt Observational Studv 0 Participants are observed through naturalistic or participant observation techniques 0 Naturalistic not involved in the events transpiring 0 Participant involved in the situation gt Coding o The analysis of overt behavior 0 Develop a hypothesis gt de ne claims gt code for behavior Descriptive or prede ned categories gt SelfReports 0 Used to gather data from a large group of people in a short time 0 Interviews gain more indepth opinionsexperiencesattitudes 0 People interviewed introduce bias39s Ex walked slowly or walked into traf c Reactivity When one knows that heshe is being observed and alters their behavior Observer Bias errors that occur because of the observer s expectations of what may happen in the studysituation Experimenter Expectancy Effect When the expectations of an observer can change the behaviors of those being observed Correlational Studies Describe how Variables are related Correlational Studies look at how variable are related in the world gt Looked at to nd casual relationship Positive Correlation Variables move the same direction Neqative Correlation Variables move in opposite directions Zero correlation variables not has no predictability to the other ThirdVariable Probem Instead of variable A in uencing Variable B there is a Variable C that plays a part in in uencing both A and B Directionaitv Probem Which variable affects the other less sleep more stress or more stress less sleep Experimental Method ControlsExolains Experiment Researcher changes one variable to measure the effects on the other variable Control Group Group that receives everything the experimental group does except the actual treatment gt Allows for researchers to test more than one hypothesis to re ne the theory gt Always compare the experimental group to a control group gt Pro of experimentation study the casual relationship between variables Causality gt Confound anything that affects the Dependent Variable and could unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions Ex sensitivity of instruments changes in time or day when experiment is done Population group studied Sample Process in which people are selected from the sample Selection Bias When random assignment of groubs is not random groubs are then not equivalent Culturallv Sensitive Research accounts for the significant role culture plavs in the behavior of people 23 The Ethics Governing Psychological Research gt Are all studies for the good of humanity Institutional Review Boards lRBs gt Must insure the health and wellbeing of participants of studies gt In charge of guidelines gt At least 1 member of the IRB must not be a scientist gt Makes sure to set ethical standards Ethical Concerns gt Privacy 0 Con dentiality and Anonymity are important 0 No personal information is collected o Is it ok to observe people without their knowledge gt Risks of Participation 0 Risk to mental and physical health of a participant o No uncomfortableness or pain when collecting data gt Informed Consent 0 Participants have the right to know what will occur to them during study 0 Allows them to make a decision to further participate in the study gt Access to Data 0 Who will have access to the data and ndings 0 Promise to participants of who will see their data gt Research with Animals 0 Does Research threaten the health of an animal o Is it fair to experiment on them 24 How is Data AnalvzedEvaluated ValidReliable and Accurate Data Construct Validity the extent that a variable measures what it was supposed to measure External Validity The degree of which the ndings of a study can be generalized to other groups of people situations or settings Internal Validity The degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not the confounds experiment well designedcontrolled with similar participants and control groups Reliability constancy of a measure over time Accuracy how error free the measure is Random Error when value of error changes each time Descriptive Statistics gt Inspect the raw values gt Summarize basic patterns using descriptive statistics Descriptive Statistics and overall summary of the results of a study Central Tendency simplest of descriptive statistics describes average response of behavior of a group w average of a set of numbers Median a value that falls in between the highest and lowest values of a group m most frequent scorevalue in a group Variability the dispersion of values between themselves and the mean Standard Deviation how spread out scores are in relation to the mean lnferential Statistics gt Descriptive data summarizes data sets gt Determine if effects really exist in the populations from the samples drawn MetaAnalysis analyzes a multitude of analysis39 Ch 3 Biology and Behavior gt Brain is a large focus of studies now gt Genetic Analysis has revealed certain disorders that are past through genes gt Allow to predict who will inherit what 31 How does the Nervous Svstem Operate Two Basic Divisions gt Both are anatomically separate from each other gt Functions are interdepepndat PNS sends CNS info CNS evaluates and then directs PNS to preform actions and adjustments Central Nervous System CNS Brain and spinal cord along with mass amounts of neurons Peripheral Nervous Svstem PNS all other nerve cells Specialized for Communication gt Powered by electrical impusles and communicate through chemical signals TVpes of Neurons gt Sensorv Neurons detect info from the physical world and pass it to the brain gt Somatosensory Nerves information from skin and muscles gt Motor Neurons Directs muscles to contract and relax produce movement gt lnterneurons communicate within local or shortdistance circuits work in a single area Neuron Structure Covered in a membrane semipermeable Some substances move in and out of the membrane lon Cahnnels allow ions to pass By controlling ions membrane plaus a part in communication between neurons VVVV Dendrites Detect chemical signals Cell Body collects signals via dendrites Axon impulses transmitted along narrow outgrowth Terminal Buttons ends of the axon Synapse location of chemical communication between neurons Restino Membrane Potential when neuron is not active electric charge inside and outside the membrane is different Sodium and Potassium lons gt Each channel is speci c for each type of ion gt Flow of ions managed by gating mechanism gt Affected by membrane39s selective permiablity gt SodiumPotassium Pump increases potassium and decreases sodium 0 Open in a series for actionpotential 0 Moves away from cell body t terminal buttons ActionPotential electrical signal passing along an axon Allor None Principal dictates that the neuron re with the same strength each time Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Neurotransmitters chemicals that are made in the axon and stored in vesicles convey signals Receptors Specialized molecules on postsynaptic membrane that respond to chemical structure of the neruotrasnmitter Reuptake When the neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic ternmal buttons Neurotransmitters In uence Mental Activitv and Behavior gt What has been learned of neurotransmitters has been done by how drugs and toxins affect emotion thought process and behavior gt Drugs raise or lower amounts of nureotransmitter that is activated 32 What are the Basic Brain Structures and Functions gt Brain and it39s importance in the role of brain functions gt New technology has improved the understanding of the brain 0 Positron Emission Tomography nds the most active brain areas 0 Magnetic Resonance Imaging a scan of the brain and its form 0 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging maps brain39s blood flow 0 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation examines brain regions close to the scalp Spinal Cord gt Carries sensory info from the body to the brain gt Motor info from brain to body gt Produces re exes Brain Stem gt Consists of medulla oblongata pons and midbrain gt Controls basic functions breathing heart rate swallowing vomiting urination orgasm gt Signi cant blows to it can cause death gt Consists of neurons reticular formation that project to the Cerebral cortex to affect awareness Cerebellum gt Associated with movemet balance and motor leranring gt quotThe little brainquot Other Structures HVDothalamus projects in uence of inputs from all over the body Affects functions of internal organs regulates body temperature body rhythems blood pressure etc Thalamus receives almost all sensory info organizes and relays it except smell Hippocampus Plays role in the formation of new memories Amygdala involved in learning about biologically relevant stimuli that elicits fear Also intensi es memoriy in emoitional arousal Bascal Ganolia crucial for planning and producing movement Cerebral Cortex Two Hemispheres 33 How Does the Brain Communicate with the Body gt Two important systems 0 Peripheral Nervous Svstem Responds to messages from CNS to preform certain behaviors o Somatic Nervous Svstem Transmits signals to the CNS via nerves CNS sends signals viaSNS to msucles joints skin to initiate movement 0 Autonomic System Regulates internal environment through stimulation of glands Parasymphatetic Brings body back to the resting state contracts pupils constricts bronchi slowls heartbeat stimulates activity dilates blood vessels Sympatheitc Prepares body for action dilated pupils relaxes bronchi increased heart rate inhibits activity of intestines Contracts blood vessels Endocrine Svstem gt Controlled by the hypothalamus gt Releases hormones into the bloodstream gt CNS and Endocrine system work together to regulate psychological activity 34 How Does the Brain Change Expe ence gt Connections form between brain structures when growing axons are directed by chemicals that tell them where to go and not go gt Experience ne tunes neural connections gt Experience can hinder or advance development gt Can reorganize if an injury occurs more dif cult to do so for kids than adults Males vs Females Brains gt Mostly dimiar but tsome differences gt Male39s brains are larger gt Females organized biateray for language gt Use different parts of the brain to preform same tasks 35 Genes gt Genes play a role in Human behavior gt Physical and perstonality traits are inherited from parents gt Genetic Expression 0 In uenced by environment and experience Epigenetics study of how one39s inviroment can changealter genetic expression