Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 4
Introduction to Visual Arts: Chapter 4 115-01
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Suzannah Hudson on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 115-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Geddes, Matthew J in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Visual Arts in Art at Brigham Young University - Idaho.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Chapter 4 Visual Elements These are the elements that we perceive and respond to when we look at a work s from Line Shape Mass Light Value Color Texture Space Time and Motion were added in the 20th Century Line 0 Line a path traced by a moving point 0 Artists use lines as symbols 0 Our minds detach a gure from everything around it by perceiving a boundary between region and another We indicate that boundary with a line 0 Lines can be expressive in themselves Primary functions of line in art to record the borders of form and to convey direction and motion Outline de nes a twodimensional shape Contours the boundaries we perceive of three dimensional forms Contour Lines the lines we draw to record contour boundaries Movement using lines to direct our eyes around an image Shape amp Mass 0 Shape a twodimensional form It occupies and are with identi able bounda es Mass a threedimensional form that occupies a volume of space Volume the amount of space that a substance or object occupies There are two categories for shape and mass Organic and Geometric Geometric Shapes and Mass approximate the regular names shapes and volumes of geometry such as square triangle circle etc 0 Organic Shapes and Mass irregular and evoke he living forms in nature Curved lines 0 Positive Shape Space the gure or main focal point of a twodimensional painting 0 Negative Shape Space the ground or leftover shapes in a twodimensional painting 0 Value shades of light and dark Chiaroscuro artists employ value to record contrasts of light and shadow in the natural world contrasts that model mass for our eyes Hatching areas of closely spaced parallel lines 0 Cross Hatching sets of parallel lines laid across the rst crossing over each other Stippling areas of dots average out through optical mixing into values Color 0 A function of light 0 Colors can effect a person psychologically and physiologically All colors are dependent on light and no object possesses color intrinsically o What we perceive as color is re ected light rays 0 Primary Colors Red Yellow Blue they cannot be made by any mixture of other colors 0 Secondary Colors Orange Green Purple each is made by combining two primary colors 0 Intermediate Colors Tertiary YellowGreen RedOrange BlueViolet the product of a primary color and an adjacent secondary color 0 Warm Colors Red Orange Yellow create a warm feeling or imagery such as re and sunlight Cool Colors Green Blue Purple create a cooler feeling such as slql water shade Hue the name of the color according to the categories of the color wheel green red or blueviolet Value of Colors the lightness and darkness of one color such as red light pink and dark maroon Tint a color lighter than the hue39s normal value Shade a color darker than the hue s normal value Intensity chromasaturation the relative purity of a color The purest color is said to have the highest intensity while duller colors have lower intensity Complementary colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel purple and yellow green and red blue and orange Monochromatic composed of variations on the same hue often with differences of value and intensity Analogous combine colors adjacent to one another on the color wheel warm and cool colors orange yellow green Triadic composed of any three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel orange green and purple Simultaneous Contrast complementary colors appear more intense when placed side by side Afterimage Prolonged staring at any saturated color fatigues the receptors in our eyes which compensate when allowed to rest by producing the color39s complimentary as a ghostly afterimage in our mind 0 Optical Mixture When small patches of different colors are close together the eye may blend them to produce a new color Textu re 0 Refers to surface quality a perception of smooth or rough at or bumpy ne or course 0 Texture makes us want to touch it Tactile actual texture something we experience through touch Visual Texture having formed an idea of what the texture is by observing the way it re ects light and associating what we see with a sense of memory of touch We experience it through sight Linear Perspective A technique for constructing an optically convincing space Forms seems to diminish in size as they recede from us and using a vanishing point parallel lines receding into the distance seem to converge until they meet at a point on the horizon line where they disappear Atmospheric Perspective An optical effect caused by the atmosphere that interposes itself between us and the objects we perceive Leonardo Da Vinci rst used this in his paintings and called is aerial perspective Time and Motion Time is the element in which we live Motion is the very sign of life 20th Century it became known in art Mobiles constructed from abstract forms suspended on slender lengths of wire they respond by their own weight to the lightest currents of air 0 Kinetic art that moves Chapter 5 The Principles of Design Unity and Variety Balance Emphasis amp Focal Point Proportion amp Scale Rhythm Unity and Variety Unity is the sense of oneness of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole Variety is difference which provides interest 0 The two generally coexist in art Balance Visual weight the apparent heaviness or lightness of the forms arranged in a composition as gauged by how insistently they draw our eyes 0 With symmetrical balance the implied center of gravity is the vertical axis an imaginary line drawn down the center of the composition 0 With asymmetrical balance the composition has two sides that do not match Georgia O39Keeffe o The rst great artist to bring to her work the true essence and experience of womanhood Born on a farm in Wisconsin 18871986 Studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and taught art in schools until she moved to Texas Loved drawing in the Southwest mostly in Texas and New Mexico After the death of her husband she moved permanently to New Mexico Painted the Deer s Skull with Pederna Emphasis and Subordination Emphasis means that our attentions is drawn more to certain parts of a composition than to others Subordination means that certain areas of the composition are purposefully made less visually interesting so that areas of emphasis stand out They are complementary concepts Focal Point when the emphasis is on a relatively small clearly de ned area Scale and Proportion Scale means size in relation to a standard or normal size Normal size is the size we expect something to be Proportion refers to size relationship between parts of a whole or between two or more items perceived as a unit Hierarchical Scale the use of a scale to indicate relative importance Rhythm based on repetition and it is the basic part of the world we nd ourselves in Examples rhythm of season moon waves They all have the same pattern Rome 510 BCE This was when the Roman Republic was found Roman legions swept eastward through Greece and Mesopotamia west and north as far as Britain across the sea to Egypt and throughout the rim of Africa Rome of cially became an empire when Augustus took the title Caesar in 27 BCE During Hellenistic Period Many works were taken from Greece to Rome One highly in uential invention of Roman sculptors was the equestrian portrait the portrayal of an admired leader on horseback In 79 BCE a volcan erupted and devoured Pompeii and burned all of the art The most familiar monument of Rome the Colosseum created in 80 BCE and dedicated as an amphitheater for gladiatorial games