Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
History 1A week 2 lecture New Kingdom Started with the liberation of Egypt from the Hyksos Ahmos the first is known as the founder of the 18th dynasty is the high point of Egyptian power and wealth Ahmos ejects the Hyksos from Egypt reunites Upper lower and Nubia rules for 25 years His son focused on reclaiming territory that had been lost during the intermediary period so he pushes into Nubia Tuthmosis the 3rd was too young to rule when Tuthmosis the 2 his father died leading to Hatshepsut one of Tuthmosis wives gaining control She wanted to be more than regent so she made herself the ruler This led to much confusion because kings were typically male Hatshepsut was very well received although the gender issue was present She ruled for 20 years Hatshepsut participated in propaganda seen when she announced that the Hyksos had ruled without Ra meaning that now that the traditional Egyptians were Suddenly after 2 decades records Hatshepsut stop It is possible that Tuthmosis the 3rd regains the throne that has been denied from him and then attempted to eradicate all memory of her from the land Tuthmosis was one of the best military leaders of the period His successes in conquest as well as those of his successors lead to an increase of wealth in Egypt Amenhotep was known as the pharaoh of sport because of his acts of war There are accounts of him killing people with his bare hands and hanging them upside down Tuthmosis the 4th began an alliance between Egypt and We see that one of the main ways to secure friendly relations between two nations comes from arranging marriages between the two leading families Amenhotep the 3rd known as a time of peace and prosperity There were many countries who paid tribute to Egypt and there was relatively little conquest and battle Amenhotep the 4th brought a religious revolution to Egypt He brought Aten the god of Sun to prevalence Ra is the god of the sun but Aten is the literal sun Amenhotep the 4th changed his name to Akhetaten and created a hymn to Aten He says that Aten is the one and true god he is the only one who knows Aten enough to worship him so everyone else much worship the Pharaoh who is the son and prophet of Aten Akhetaten moves the capital from Thebes to Armarna which symbolized the changed of religion Under the new religion Akhetaten tries to convert Egypt from the traditionally polytheistic religion to a new quasimonotheistic one This change naturally leads to a less accepting culture because now the idea is this is the only god only we know him and how to worship him Akhetaten changes the names of his family and predecessors to make sure that all names of old gods were not known gods in the plural was banned and the name for mother was changed because its also the name of a local goddess worshiped in Thebes Ultimately the revolution was a failure Outside of the palace the Egyptian people continued to worship their traditional gods and ignore the changes that the pharaoh tried to in uence Once he died the new religion failed The royal courts stopped trying to change things and revived the traditional religion One account says that his corpse was thrown to dogs his family all changed their names 19th Dynasty Established by Ramses the 1st Ramses II reigned from 1290 to 1224 where he established himself as a conquered and a builder His biggest accomplishment was defeating the Hittites which lead to a peace treaty between the two A coalition against Egypt arose between Libyans and the Sea people where they united and tried to invade Egypt to establish permanent settlement of the area but were unsuccessful It is unclear where the Sea People originate from but it seems plausible that they come from the eastern Mediterranean area The New Kingdom comes to an end in With the 20th dynasty Egypt is once again divided Israel The God of the Jews Yahweh was destined to become king if the Jews and the Muslims leading to the religion and religion Hebrew designates an ethnicity and later on a language Israelite is a term for an inhabitant of the land of Israel Jew is used as a religious term to describe someone who follows Yahweh The Old Testament Includes history law proverb prophecy song There is a universal theme of the glory of God and his plan for the human race There are two factors the will of God and the actions of mortals that affect events that happen God works through human events to put forth his plan Three parts the law the prophets and the writings There is a lot of historical information relating to geography and history of their neighbors The first 5 books of the bible aren39t considered history in the modern sense if the word because of the element of causation and gods work The history of the Hebrews before their con ict with the philistines is very uncertain Based on historical accounts in the bible the patriarch Abraham took his family out of Ur and found his God Yahweh Noah39s ark landed in the same place that the Babylonian ood story landed Jacob and his sons ed to Egypt to escape drought and famine Some historians reject the entire exodus story as a myth It is very possible that some Hebrews joined in the Hyksos invasion due to cultural similarities The Hebrew in Egypt are said to have settled into lower Egypt and when the Hyksos were expelled they were forced into slavery The Hebrews were delivered from slavery by Moses This isn39t listed in Egyptian history but that may be because it wasn39t of great importance to them or they didn39t want to advertise it The Hebrews spent 40 years wandering in the desert to get to Canaan This is when God delivered the 10 commandments which brought a new covenant to the people The commandment of not having any other gods before god shows that they weren t exclusively monotheistic and confirms the pretense of other gods The arrival of the Hebrews about 1200 BC In Joshua it was said that military conquest allowed the Hebrews to settle another book says it was peaceful Ultimately this is the settlement of the Hebrews which leads to a more sedentary lifestyle The Hebrews adopted the Canaanite language leading to the development of Hebrew The term Israelites could now be used to describe the group The Israelites were starting to worship the Canaanite gods and create idols which then led to s stricter enforcement of the commandments The Israelite law gives saw the need to distinguish themselves from the Egyptians and the Canaanites in order to protect the sanctity of their religion The Israelites had a strong religious and cultural bond but no political bond The lack of this led to the Israelites having insufficient resources to combat a new force the philistines The philistines had better organization and more advanced technology specifically with iron weapons allowing them to take over Canaan A man named Samuel started preaching rebellion and knowing this would require unity named Saul the first king of Israel David fought For the Israelite and was able to kill Goliath leading to a popularity increase and Saul kicking him out When Saul died David came back and became king He was a successful leader and allowed Israel to become independent The ark if the covenant was originally a portable shrine consisting of a wooden chest and the Ten Commandments but was given a permanent home in Jerusalem This established Jerusalem as a holy city and the political capital Today the ark if the covenant is said to be lost Solomon 0 David39s son and successor o Built a huge temple put the ark if the covenant in there 0 The temple became the spiritual center of the country 0 Increases diplomatic relations with neighboring countries through marriages 0 Solomon allows his wives to continue worshiping their pagan gods and builds temples for them 0 Foreign trade increased leading to an in ux of wealth and allowing the temple to be built However this required compulsory labor and a lot of taxes leading to his popularity to drop 0 The upside was a sense of magnificence to the kingdom of Israel but the Egyptians hated how he acted like a typical King After Solomon s death Israel split into two parts Israel in the south and Judah in the north 0 This is known as the divided monarchy 0 Lasts a couple hundred years The rise of the prophets 0 There was a growing insistence of the covenant between God and his worshippers and various political problems 0 The people were to worship God exclusively and in return God would protect them However if they didn39t hold up their end then God was able to withdraw his part of the agreement 0 The prophets were against the corruption of the kings 620 BC 0 Reign of Josiah 0 Said that the spread of polytheism ended because if Josiah 0 He destroyed all of the booksworks relating to other religions 0 In 586 Nebuchadnezzar rounds up the Jews and ships then to Babylon 0 Jewish diaspora begins meaning scattering if the people 0 Jews couldn39t return to Jerusalem until 5 39 when Babylon was annexed o By this time they we39re all spread out Babylonian captivity o Forced Judaism to adapt to a new environment 0 Before their worship was directly linked to their temple that as destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar Assyria 0 Spoke a sematic language close to Babylonian and learned writing 0 Ashur was the chief divinity of the Assyrian empire 0 New Assyrian period aka Assyrian empire lasted from 934612 First becomes independent stare when Babylonia falls around 2000 In the old Assyrian period the kinds considered themselves to be an earthly administrator for the city s patron god Ashur 1813 to 1781 move into Middle Assyrian period outside ruler comes in and changes royal ideology 1 Added many titles to his name including ruler of the universe 2 Shalmeneser 3 Shlalmeneser was the cause of change to culture 0 King of Assyria and Babylon 0 Brought back Babylonian texts that would in uence Assyrian literature 4 Tiglath came next 0 Captured and killed many animals 0 Expanded the empire displayed personal strength and bravery provided stability and order which is how a king should be In Assyria Patriarchal society 0 Man could have two wives and a concubine 0 If a man found out his wife was cheating he could either kill both the wife and the lover mutilate them or do nothing New period 0 934745 period of recovery concerned with reclaiming territory 0 745639 period of expansion increase in size lower and organization 0 639612 Period of decline Period of recovery 0 Reclaim territory that had been lost in the intermediate period between the middle and he periods 0 Assyrian kings justified taking over land baying that they were entitled to it because it39s belonged to their ancestors 0 Any country that gained independence from Assyria was technically and legally in revolt from Assyria and could therefore be reclaimed no matter how long they had been a country 0 Brutal methods of conquest The Assyrian kings made sure to document how successful they were with their conquests The purpose of being so brutal was to send a message that if you revolt they will do the same to you 0 Known to skin leaders a live and out the skin in the outer walls or to decapitate the enemies and put the heads in pyramids along the road 0 The result if these tactics was a calculated frightfulness Period Of expansion 0 Assyria us the strongest territory in the are due to their permanent specialized military 0 Tiglath is the first king of this new period 0 Sargon 2nd son of tiglath spent his entire reign fighting and maintaining control of conquered territories 0 Ashurbanipal conquered Egypt and created a great royal library through control of Egypt didn39t last for very long Fall of Assyrian emotive 0 000 O Sudden collapse has been a puzzle to historians In 630 it was powerful stable and ourishing By 610 the main cities are all in ruins Internal and external pressures all caused this There was a lot of change in leadership in a short time Fall of Nineveh was the end of the Assyrian empire The fall of Assyria changed the power structure in the near east