BIO Psych Study Guide and Notes
BIO Psych Study Guide and Notes Psych 202
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Biopsychology 202 Chapter 1 neuI39oscience the scientific study of the nervous system is divided into many sub disciplines because the topic is so vast philosophers are scholars that study the relationship between behavior and brain preparation and mummification of important people in ancient Egypt reflected the belief of afterlife preserve liver lungs stomach and intestines the heart was most important and preserved in its place in the body and brain disposed Descartes asserted that humans had a nonmaterial soul as well as a material body and that the soul governed behavior through a point of contact the pineal gland dualism the mind has an immaterial aspect that is distinct from the material body and brain phrenology the belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of brain regions responsible for certain behavioral faculties idea that specific behaviors feelings and personality traits were controlled by discrete regions of the brain localization of function the concept that different brain regions specialize in specific behaviors Paul Broca noted that damages to a region in the left side of the brain caused problems with speech production Karl Lashley gave the idea that memories are not localized to only one region of the brain Donald 0 Hebb showed that cognitive processing could be accomplished by networks of active neurons molded by repeated activation patterns into functional circuits Hebbian synapse type of changeable connection between neurons that remains a hot topic in neuroscience Theoretical Perspectives 1 systematic description of behavior 2 the evolution of brain and behavior 3 life span development of the brain and behavior 4 the biological mechanisms of behavior ontogeny the process by which an individual changes in the course of its lifetime that is grows up and grows old neuron nerve cell the basic unit of the nervous system neural plasticity the ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment adult neurogenesis the creation of new neurons in the brain of an adult evolutionary psychology a field of study devoted to asking how natural selection has shaped behavior in humans and other animals epigenetics the study of factors that affect gene expression without making any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the genes themselves gene expression the turning on or off of specific genes neuroeconomics the study of brain mechanisms at work during economic decision making consciousness the state of awareness of ones own existence thoughts emotions and experiences somatic intervention an approach to finding relations between body variables and behavioral variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for resultant changes in behavior independent variable the factor that in manipulated by an experimenter dependent variable the factor that an experimenter measures to monitor a change in response to changes in an independent variable control group a group of research subjects that are identical to an experimental group in every way except that they do not receive the experimental treatment within in subjects experiment the same set of subjects is compared before and after an experimental manipulation between subjects experiment group of experimental subjects is compared with a control group of individuals who have been treated identically in every way expect that they haven t received the experimental manipulation behavioral intervention finding relations between the body variables and behavioral variables that involves intervening in the behavior of an organism and looking for resultant changes in the body structure or function reductionism the scientific strategy of breaking a system down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it levels of analysis the scope of experimental approaches A scientist may try to understand behavior by monitoring molecules nerve cells brain regions or social environments or using some combination of these levels of analysis Chapter 2 Cells and Structures all organs and muscles are in communication with the nervous system made up of cells neurons or nerve cell the basic unite of nervous system each composed of receptive extensions called dendrites an integrating cell body a conducting axon and a transmitting axon terminal each neuron receives inputs from many other neurons integrates those inputs and then distributes the processed info to other neurons glial cells nonneuronal brain cells that provide structural nutritional and other types of support to the brain neurons are not quite continuous with one another information is transmitted across tiny gaps called synapse cellular location at which information is transmitted from a neuron to another cell neuron contains DNA inside a cell nucleus Input Zone at dendrites an extension of the cell body that receives information from other neurons neurons receive information from other neurons Dendrites may be greatly branched to accommodate synapses from many other neurons Integration Zone part of neuron that initiates nerve electrical activity the neurons cell body soma integrates combines the information that has been received to determine whether to send a signal of its own Conduction Zone part of the neuron over which the nerve s electrical signal may be actively propagated a sing extension the axon sing extension that carries action potentials from the cell body toward the axon terminal conducts output information in the form of electrical impulses away from the cell Output Zone specialized swellings at the ends of the axon called axon terminals forms a synapse on a neuron other target cell transmit the cells signal across synapses to other cells many different shapes of neuron re ecting their function motoneurons large and have long axons reaching out to synapse on muscles causing muscular contractions sensory neurons affected by changes in the environment such as light odor or touch and gather sensory information they have very diverse shapes interneurons most of the neurons in the brain analyzing information gathered from one set of neurons and communicating with others receive and send size chart page 24 Classify neurons according to three basic shapes Multipolar has may dendrites and a single axon Bipolar have a single dendrite at one end of the cell and a single axon at the other end of the cell Common in sensory neurons such as vision Unipolar neurons have a single extension usually thought of as an axon that branches in two directions after leaving the body and they transmit touch information from the body to the spinal cord presynaptic referring to the region of a synapse that releases neurotransmitters postsynaptic referring to the region of a synapse that receives and responds to neurotransmitter at each synapse information is transmitted from the axon terminal of a pre neuron to the post neuron a synapse is compose of the following elements Presynaptic membrane on the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron transmits information by releasing neurotransmitters Postsynaptic on the dendrite or cell body of the postsynaptic neuron receives information by responding to neurotransmitters from a presynaptic neuron Synaptic Cleft space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons at a synapse within the presynaptic axon terminals are tiny spheres called synaptic vesicles that contains molecules of neurotransmitters used to communicate with postsynaptic cells The pre signals the post cell by fusing many synaptic vesicles to the pre membrane releasing their contents into the synaptic cleft after crossing the cleft the release neurotransmitter interacts with matching neurotransmitter receptor a protein that captures and reacts to molecules of a neurotransmitter or hormone special protein molecules that stud the postsynaptic membrane receptors capture and react to molecules of the neurotransmitter altering the level of excitation of the postsynaptic neuron and making the neuron more or less likely to release neurotransmitter from its own axon terminals neural plasticity the ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment and the capacity for continual remodeling or the connections between neurons axon hillock the cone shaped area the cell body from which the axon originates it has unique properties that allow it to gather and integrate incoming information from the synapses on the dendrites and cell body and covert those inputs into a code of electrical impulses these electrical signals race down the axon toward the targets that the neuron is said to innervate the provide neural input to axon is narrow may divide into axon collateral a branch of an axon axonal transport transportation of materials from the neuronal cell body to distant regions in the dendrites and axons and from the axon terminals back to the cell body works in both directions axon has two different functions 1 Rapid transmission of electrical signals along the membrane 2 Slower transmission of substances within the axon to and from the axon terminals glial cells mostly filler holding the NS together directly affect neuronal functioning by providing neurons with raw materials chemical signals and specialized structural components Four glial cells 1 Oligodendrocytes forms myelin in the central nervous system 2 Schwann cells forms myelin in the PNS myein the fatty insulation around an axon formed by glial cells This sheath improves the speed between the beads are small uninsulated patches of axon membrane Node of Ranvier a gap between successive segments of the myelin sheath where the axon membrane is exposed myelination increases the speed with which electrical signals pass down the axon jumping from one node to the next multiple sclerosis many scars widespread degeneration of myelin 3 Astrocytes weave around and between neurons with tentacle like extensions that run in all directions and stretch between neurons and fine blood vessels controlling local blood flow to increase the amount of blood reaching more active brain regions They also secrete chemicals that modulate neural activity and the formation of synapses as well as helping to form the tough outer membranes that swaddle the brain 4 Microglial cells tiny and mobile they appear to be to contain and clean up sites of injury because glial cells continue to divide in adulthood they can give rise to deadly brain tumors respond to brain injury by swelling edema damages neurons and is responsible for many symptoms of brain injuries gross neuroanatomy anatomical features of the nervous system that are apparent to the naked eye CNS brain and spinal cord PNS all nerves and neurons outside the brain and spinal cord PNS consists of nerves a collection of axons bundled together outside of the central nervous system motor nerves transmits information from the CNS to the muscles and glands sensory nerves conveys information from the body to the CNS PNS has three components 1 Cranial nerves connected directly to the brain 2 Spinal nerves connected at regular intervals to the spinal cord 3 Autonomic nervous system consists of the nerves that connect to the viscera internal organs 12 pairs of cranial nerves one left sided and one right sided nerve in each pair some nerves are sensory and some are motor classifications page 30amp31 31 pairs of spinal nerves 8 cervical neck 12 thoracic trunk 5 lumbar lower back 5 sacral pelvic 1 coccygeal bottom autonomic nervous system don t have much conscious voluntary control over its actions it s the brain s main system for controlling the organs of the body 1 sympathetic nervous system axons from this exit from the middle parts of the spinal cord travel a short distance and then innervate the sympathetic ganglia small clusters of neurons outside the CNS arises from the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and prepares the body for immediate action fight or ight 2 parasympathetic nervous system helps the body to relax recuperate and prepare for further action travel a longer distance before terminating brain 1400 grams 2 of body weight cerebral hemispheres one of the two halves right or left of the forebrain Terminology page 35 cerebral cortex the outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres which consists largely of nerve cell bodies and their branches gyrus ridged or raised portion of a convoluted brain surface sulcus crevice or valley of a convoluted brain surface frontal lobe the most anterior portion of the cerebral cortex parietal lobe the large region of cortex lying between the frontal and occipital lobes in each cerebral hemispheres temporal lobe the large lateral region of cortex in each cerebral hemisphere continuous with the parietal lobe posteriorly and separated from the frontal lobe by the Sylvian fissure occipital lobe covers much of the posterior part of each cerebral hemisphere Sylvian fissure lateral sulcus a deep fissure that demarcates the temporal lobe divides central sulcus provides a distinct landmark dividing the frontal and parietal lobes cortex is seat of complex cognition damage can affect speech memory problems personality changes hundreds of millions of axons connect the left and right hemispheres via the corpus callosum the main band of axons that connect the two cerebral hemispheres postcentral gyrus strip of parietal cortex just behind the central sulcus that receives somatosensory information from the entire body precentral gyrus strip of frontal cortex Justin front of the central sulcus that is crucial for motor control and organized like a map of the body gray matter areas of the brain that are dominated by the cell bodies and are devoid of myelin Grey matter mostly receives and processes information white matter from the whitish fatty myelin that insulates the axons of many neurons transmits information neural tube walls made of cells and the interior filled with uid embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrain midbrain and hindbrain after conception the tube starts to show three separate swellings of the head 1 forebrain the frontal division of the neural tube containing the cerebral hemispheres the thalamus and the hypothalamus 2 midbrain the middle division of the brain 3 hindbrain rear division of the brain which in mature vertebrate contains the cerebellum pons and medulla at 50 days the forebrain shows the telencephalon anterior part of the fetal forebrain which will become he cerebral hemispheres in the adult brain and the diencephalon the posterior part of the fetal forebrain which will become the thalamus and the hypothalamus in the adult brain brainstem region of the brain with the medulla pons and midbrain within and between the major brain regions are collection of neurons called nuclei collection of neuronal cell bodies within the central nervous system and bundles of axons called tracts bundle of axons found within the CNS collections of neurons are called ganglia and bundles of axons are called nerves contralateral the right side of the brain controls and receives information from the left side of the brain and vice versa pyramidal cell type of large cell that has a roughly pyramid shaped body and is found in the cerebral cortex c0139tical columns one of the vertical columns that constitute the basic organization of the cerebral cortex basal ganglia a group of forebrain nuclei including the caudate nucleus globus palidus and putamen found deep within the cerebral hemispheres 1 Caudate nucleus long extensions 2 Putamen 3 Globus pallidus limbic system widespread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network emotion and learning amygalda a group of nuclei in the medial anterior part of the temporal lobe emotional regul7ation amp the perception of odor hippocampus medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory and fornix a fiber tract that extends from the hippocampus to the mammillary body are important for learning and memory cingulate gryrus a strip of cortex found in the frontal and parietal midline that is park of the limbic system and is implicated in many cognitive functions like direction of attention olfactory bulb is involved in sense of smell an anterior projection of the brain that terminates in the upper nasal passages and through small openings in the skull provides receptors for smell near the medial middle and basal bottom aspects of the forebrain are found the thalamus the brain regions that surround the third ventricle and the hypothalamus part of the diencephalon lying ventral to the thalamus thalamus directs all traffic to regions of the cortex for further processing and info back from the cortex to control which sensory information is transmitted hypothalamus hunger thirst sex temp regulation and control the pituitary gland it serves as the brains main interface with the hormonal systems of the body midbrain not as much tissue but two bumps on the dorsal surface rostal bumps are superior colliculiz paired grey matter structures of the dorsal midbrain that process visual information process visual information caudal bumbs are inferior colliculi paired grey matter structures dorsal midbrain that process auditory information process information about sound together colliculi are regered to as tectum the dorsal portion of the midbrain consisting of the inferior and superior colliculi substantia nigra a brainstem structure that innervates the basal ganglia and is the source of all dopaminergic projections loss of neurons which normally release the neurotransmitter dopamine within the forebrain leads to Parkinsons disease reticular formation is a loose connection of neurons stretching right down into the medulla sleep and arousal cerebellum motor coordination and control and certain aspects of cognition and learning pons contains important motor control and sensory nuclei and it is the point of origin for several cranial nerves connects the midbrain to the medulla medulla continuous with the spinal cord drive respiration and heart rate which is why brain stem injuries are often lethal brain and spinal cord are swaddled by three protective membranes called menings l dura mater the outmost of the three menings that surround the brain and spinal cord 2 pia mater the innermost of the three menings that surround the brain and spinal cord 3 arachnoid the thing covering that lies between the dura and pia cerebrospinal uid uid that fills the cerebral ventricles protects from moderate impacts by CSF s shock absorbing action give nurtients and signals chemicals meningitis an acute in ammation of the menings caused by a viral or bacterial infection and squeezes the brain series of chambers inside the brain ventricular system uid filled cavities inside the brain lateral ventricle each hemisphere of the brain contains this which are lined with a specialized membrane called choroid plexus which produces CSF by filtering blood CSF ows from the lateral ventricle to the third ventricle conducts cerebrospinal uid from the lateral ventricles to the fourth ventricle continues to fourth ventricle releases it to surround the brain and spinal cord where three small openings below the cerebellum allow CSF to exit the ventricular system and circulate over the outer brain and spinal cord and absorbed back through big veins stoke damage to a region of brain tissue that results from the blockage or rupture of vessels that supply blood to that region fine vessels and capillaries branching from arteries deliver nutrients and other substances to brain cells and remove waste products bloodbrain barrier make the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs giving brain more protection to substances found in the blood computerized axial tomography CAT non invasive technique for examining brain structure through computer analysis of X ray absorption at several positions around the head magnetic resonance imaging MRI noninvasive technique for examining brain structure that uses magnetic energy to generate images that reveal some structural details in the living brain functional MRI magnetic resonance imaging that detects changes in blood ow and therefore identifies regions of the brain that are particularly active during a given task position emission tomography PET a technique for examining brain function that combines tomography with injections of radioactive substances used by the brain transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS a noninvasive technique for examining brain function that applies strong magnetic fields to stimulate cortical neurons in order to identify discrete areas of the brain that are active during specific behaviors magnetoencephalography MEG a passive and noninvasive techniques for examining brain function that measures the tiny magnetic fields produces by active neurons in order to identify regions of the brain that are active during a given task Page 439447 Cerebral Asvmmetrv epilepsy experience seizures that start in one hemisphere and then spread through the corpus callosum to involve the brain to control epilepsy you can cut the corpus callosum preventing the spread splitbrain individuals corpus callosum has been severed halting communication between the two hemispheres contralateral pertaining to the location on the opposite side of the body dichotic presentation the simultaneous delivery of different stimuli to both the right and the left ears at the same time tachistoscope tests stimuli are very brie y presented to either the left or right visual half field planum temporale an auditory region of superior temporal cortex page 443 prosody the perception of emotional tone of voice aspects of language right hemispheres speciality astereognosis the inability to recognize objects be touching and feeling them prosopagnosia a condition characterized by the inability to recognize faces right hemisphere affected Wada Test page 445 fusiform gyrus a region of the inferior surface of the cortex at the junction of the temporal and occipital lobes that has been associated with recognition of faces large categories like bird species agonosia an inability to identify individual items makers of cars tools bird species sounds etc but can describe them in terms of color and form Pages 380392 Development of the Brain the nervous system develops from the outer layer called the endoderm the outer cellular layer of the developing fetus giving rise to the skin and the nervous system cells thicken and grow to form a groove that will become the midline the head end of this neural groove a thickened collection of cells forms neural tube an embryonic structure with subdivisions that correspond to the future forebrain midbrain and hindbrain and this has three subdivisions 1 forebrain the front division of the brain which in the mature vertebrate contains the cerebral hemispheres the thalamus and the hypothalamus 2 midbrain the middle division of the brain 3 hindbrain the rear division of the brain which in the mature vertebrate contains the cerebellum pons and medulla embryo the earliest stage in development first ten weeks then called the fetus Development of the nervous system 1 neurogenesis the mitotic division of non neural cells to produce neurons 2 cell migration the massive movements of nerve cells or their precursors to establish distinct nerve cell populations cell differentiation the refining of cells into distinctive types of neurons or glial cells synaptogenesis the establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow neuronal cell death the selective death of many nerve cells synapse rearrangements the loss of some synapses and the development of others to refine synaptic connections neurogenesis is the production of neurons mitosis the process of division of somatic cells that involves duplication of DNA ventricular zone a region lining the cerebral ventricles that displays mitosis providing neurons early in development the glial cells throughout life cell migration the movement of cells from site of origin to final location 4gtE gene expression the process by which a cell makes an mRNA transcript of a particular gene cell diffusion the developmental stage in which cells acquire distinctive characteristics such as those of neurons as a result of expressing particular genes synaptogenesis the establishment of synaptic connections as axons and dendrites grow cellcell interactions the general process during development in which one cell affects the differentiation of other usually neighboring cells stem cells a cell that is undifferentiated and therefore can take on the date of any cell that a donor organism can produce adult neurogenesis the creation of new neurons in the brain an adult cell death of apoptosis developmental process during which surplus cells die death gene a gene that is expressed only when a cell becomes committed to natural cell death neurotrophicfactor a target derived chemical that acts as if it feeds certain neurons to help them survive synapse rearrangement the loss of some synapses and the development of others a refinement of synaptic connections that is often seen in development genotype all the genetic information that one specific individual has inherited phenotype the sum of an individual s physical characteristics at one particular time phenylketonuria PKU an inherited disorder of protein metabolism in which the absence of an enzyme leads to toxic buildup of certain compounds causing intellectual disability clones asexually produced organisms that are genetically identical epigenetics the study of factors that affect gene expression without making any changes in the nucleotide sequence of the genes themselves methylation a chemical modification of DNA that does not affect the nucleotide sequence of a gene but makes that gene less likely to be expressed Alzheimer s disease a form of dementia that may appear in middle age but is more frequent among older dementia drastic failure of cognitive ability including memory failure or loss of orientation amyloid plaque small area of the brain that has abnormal cellular and chemical patterns Amyloid plaques correlate with dementia betaamyloid a protein that accumulates in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer s disease neurofibrillary tangle an abnormal whorl of neurofilaments within nerve cells that is seen in Alzheimer s disease tau a protein associated with neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer s disease Chapter 3 neurophysiology is the study of life processes within neurons which are specialized to use electrical signals for communication behaviors involve electrical alone sensory neuron axons then chemical sensory neurons to motor neurons then electrical again along motor neuron axons and finally chemical again motor neurons to muscle pattern of neural function information ows within a neuron via electrical signals action potentials and passes between neurons through chemical signals neurotransmitters polarized all living things exhibit a difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell of the many ions an atom or molecule that has acquired an electrical charge by gaining or losing on or more electrons that a neuron contains a majority are anions negatively charged ions especially large protein anions that cannot exit the cell the rest are cations positively charged ions all ions are dissolved in the intracellular fluid the watery solution found within cells inside the cell and extracellular fluid uid in the spaced between the cells and in the vascular system surrounding the cell membrane the lipid bilayer that ensheathes a cell microelectrode a very small electrode used to record electrical potentials in living cells neuron is much more negative on the inside than on the outside resting potential a different in electrical potential across the membrane of a nerve cell during an inactive period cell membrane consists of layers of fatty molecules studded with many sorts of specialized proteins ionchannel a pore in the cell membrane that permits the passage of certain ions through the membrane when the channels are open some channels are gated such channels selectively allow only potassium ions K to cross the membrane cell membrane of a neuron exhibits selective permeability the property of a membrane that allows some substances to pass through but not others diffusion the spontaneous spread of molecules until a uniform concentration is achieved high to low electrostatic pressure the propensity of charged molecules or ions to move via diffusion toward areas with the opposite charge sodiumpotassium pumps pump three sodium ions Na out of the cell for every two K ions pumped in equilibrium potential the point at which the movement of ions across the cell membrane is balanced as the electrostatic pressure pulling ions in one direction is offset by the diffusion force pushing them in the opposite direction action potentials brie y arrive at the axon hillock the cone shaped area on the cell body from which the axon originates and then rapidly moves down the axon hyperpolarization an increase in membrane potential the interior of the neuron becomes even more negative depolarization a decrease in membrane potential less negative the neurons change in potential is called a graded response local potentials across the membrane get smaller as they spread away from the point of stimulation threshold the stimulus intensity that is just adequate to trigger an action potential at the axon hillock action potential also called spike is a rapid reversal of the membrane potential that momentarily makes the inside of the membrane positive with respect to the outside all or none property the fact that the size or amplitude of the action potential is independent of the size of the stimulus the return to baseline potential is not simple immediately following the spike actionpotentials the positive or negative change in membrane potential that may follow an action potential action potential is created by the sudden movement of sodium ions in the cell voltagegated Na channel a Na selective channel that opens or closes in response to changes in the voltage of the local membrane potential it mediates the action potential page 5657 refractory temporarily unresponsive or inactivated absolute refractory phase a brief period of complete insensitivity to stimuli relative refractory phase a period of reduced sensitivity during which only strong stimulation produces an action potential How action potentials spread down the channels action potential is a spike of depolarizing electrical activity goes from axon hillock to axon terminals conduction velocity varies along axon the speed at which the action potential is propagated along the length of an axon larger axons the depolarization can spread faster it also needs myelin sheath so move quickly which is the fatty insulation around the axon formed by glial cells the myelin insulation resists the flow of ions across the membrane so the action potential jumps from node to node salutatory conduction when action potential reaches the end of the axon is releases a chemical called a neurotransmitter basis of communication between neurons axon is from the presynaptic cell refereeing to the region of a synapse that releases neurotransmitter to and the target neuron on the other side of the synapse the postsynaptic cell referring to the region of a synapse that receives and response to neurotransmitter postsynaptic potential local potential that is initiated by stimulation at a synapse which can vary in amplitude and spreads passively across the cell membrane decreasing in strength with time and distance eXcitatory postsynaptic potential EPSP a depolarizing potential in the postsynaptic neuron that is caused by excitatory presynaptic potentials EPSPS increase the probability that the postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential synaptic delay the brief delay between the arrival of an action potential at the axon terminal and the creation of a postsynaptic potential inhibitory postsynaptic potential IPSP a hyperpolarizing potential in the postsynaptic neuron that is caused by inhibitory connections IPSPS decrease the probability that the postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential chloride ion Cl a chlorine atom that carries a negative charge because it has gained on electron spatial summation the summation of postsynaptic potentials that reach the axon hillock from different locations across the cell body If the summation reaches the cell body the action potential is triggered temporal summation the summation of postsynaptic potentials that reach the axon hillock at different times The closer in time the potentials occur the more complete the summation is Synaptic Transmission Requires a Sequence of Events page 64 when an action potential reaches a presynaptic terminal it causes hundred of synaptic vesicles a small spherical structure that contains molecules of neurotransmitter near the presynaptic membrane to fuse with the membrane and discharge their contents molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons at a synapse the key event in this process is an in ux of calcium ions Ca2 a calcium atom that carries a double positive charge because it has lost two electrons page 64 a molecule of the correct shape called a lingand can fit into a receptor protein and activate or block it acetylcholine Ach a neurotransmitter that is produced and released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons by motorneurons and neurons throughout the brain neurotransmitter receptor also called receptor a protein that captures and reacts to molecules of a neurotransmitter or hormone potent poisons that block ACh receptors Curare a neurotoxin that causes paralysis by blocking acetylcholine receptors in muscle Bungarotox a neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the banded krait that selectively blocks acetylcholine agonists a molecule like a drug that binds a receptor molecule and initiates a response like that of another molecule usually a neurotransmitter chemical in nicotine mimic ACh by increasing alertness and heart rate ACh acts on at least four subtypes of cholinergic receptors referring to cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic transmitter Bring transmitter effects to a prompt halt 1 Degradation the chemical breakdown of a neurotransmitter into inactive metabolites ex enzyme that inactivate ACh is acetylcholinesterase 2 Reuptake the process by which release synaptic transmitter molecules are taken up and reused by the presynaptic neuron thus stopping synaptic activity ex norepinephrine dopamine are examples of transmitters whose activity is terminated mainly by reuptake Transporters are located on the presynaptic axon terminal transmitter molecules may be repackaged into newly formed synaptic vesicles to await re release conserving the resources that would be needed to make new transmitter molecules aX0dendritic synapse a synapse at which presynaptic axon terminal synapses onto a dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron either via a dendritic spine or directly onto the dendritic itself aX0somatic synapse a synapse at which a presynaptic axon terminal synapses onto the cell body soma of the postsynaptic neuron aX0axonic synaposez a synapse at which a presynaptic axon terminal synapses onto the axon terminal of another neuron dendr0dendritic synapse a synapse at which a synaptic connection forms between the dendrites of two neurons kneejerk re ex a variant of the stretch re ex in which stretching of the tendon beneath the knee leads to an upward kick of the leg electroencephalogram EEG a recording of gross electrical activity of the brain via large electrodes places on the scalp eventrelated potential ERP averaged EEG recordings measuring brain responses to repeated presentations of a stimulus Components of the ERP tend to be reliable because the background noise of the cortex has been averaged out epilepsy a brain disorder marked by major sudden changes in the electrophysiological states of the brain that are referred to as seizures seizure an epileptic episode grand mal seizure a type of generalized epileptic seizure in which nerve cells fire in hi gh frequency bursts usually accompanied by involuntary rhythmic contractions of the body petit mal seizure absence attack a seizure that is characterized by a spike and wave EEG and often involves a loss of awareness and inability to recall events surround the seizure c0mplex partial seizure in epilepsy a type of seizure that doesn t involve the entire brain and therefore can cause a wide variety of symptoms aura the unusual sensations or premonitions that may precede the beginning of a seizure in epilepsy BioPsycho1ogy Final Study Guide Biopsychology Chapter I I Emotional Processing Emotion a subjective mental state that is usually accompanied by distinctive behaviors as well as involuntary physiological changes Sympathaic nervous system the part of the autonomic system that acts as the quotfight or ightquot system generally activating the body for action Parasympathetic system the part of the autonomic nervous system that generally prepares the body to relax and recuperate We experience fear bemuse we perceive the activity that dangerous conditions trigger in our body Surprise anger accompanied by sympathetic activation Joy sadness accompanied by parasympathetic activation Cerebral cortex simultaneously decides on the appropriate emotional experience and activates the autonomic nervous system to appropriately prepare the body using either the parasympathetic system to help the body rest or the sympathetic system to ready the body for action Theory eight basic emotion groups joyfsadness affectionfdisgust angerffear exceptionlsurprise Facial muscles can be divided in two categories I Superficial facial muscles most of which attach only between different points of facial skin so when they contact they change the shape of the mouth eyes or nose or maybe create a dimple 2 Deep facial muscles attach to bone and produce largerscale movements like chewing These facial muscles are innervated by two cranial nerves 1 the facial nerve which innervates the superficial muscles of facial expression 2 the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve which innervates muscles that move the jaw Facial feedback hypothesis the idea that sensory feedback from our facial expressions can affect our mood Darwin nonhuman primates have the same facial muscles as humans Evolutionary psychology a field of study devoted to asking how natural selection has shaped behavior in humans and other anirmls One way to study the neuroanatomy of emotion is to electrically stimulate brain sites in conscious aninnls and then observe the effects on behavior Brain selfstimulation the process in which animals will work to provide electrical stimulation to particular brain sites presumably because the experience is very rewarding Medial forebrain bundle a collection of axons traveling in the midline region of the forebrain Nucleus accumbens a region of the forebrain the receives doparninergic innervation from the ventral tegmental arm Dogs in which the cortex had been removed were found to respond to routine handling with sudden intense decortimte rage sudden intense rage characterized by actions that lack clmr direction snarling and biting in dogs 39 Limbic system include the rmmmillary bodies of the hypothalamus the anterior thalamus the cingulate cortex the hippommpus the amygalda and the fomix 39 lluver Bucy syndrome a condition brought about by bilateral amygalda damage that is characterized by drarmtic emotional changes including reduction in fmr and anxiety Fmr conditioning a dorm of classiml conditioning in which previously neutral stimulus is repmtedly paired with an unpleasant stimulus like foot shock until the previously neutral stimulus alone elicits the responses seen in fmr Iesioning just the central nucleus of the amygalda in rats prevents blood pressure increases and freezing behavior in response to a conditioned fmr stimulus Agggsion and Stress Aggression behavior that is intended to cause pain or harm to others Intermale aggression aggression between males of the same species At sexual maturity as the testes begin secreting the steroid hormone testosterone inter male aggression markedly increases in many species Castrating males to remove the source of testosterone usually reduces aggressive behavior profoundly Treating castrated males with testosterone restores fighting behavior In humans trmting rmles with more testosterone does not muse more aggression Nonaggressive tendencies in rmles are associated with satisfaction in family functioning and with lower levels of serum testosterone In monkeys and mice the loser in aggressive encounters shows reduced androgen levels The release of serotonin in the brain nornmlly inhibits aggression GABA and a variety of peptide hormones have also been implicated in aggression Some forms of intense human violence are mused by temporal lobe disorders Psychopaths are often intelligent individuals with superficial charm who have poor self control a grandiose sense of self worth and little or no feelings of remorse and who somuimm commit very violent crimes Stress a multidimensional concept that encompasses stressful stimuli the stress processing system and response to stress Alarm rmction the initial response to stress the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system to ready for action this is fight or ight system Ibis isstimulationofthecoreoftheadrenalglandtheinnercoreodtheadrenal medulla to release epinephrine and norepinephrine 1 These hormones boost the heart rate and breathing etc 1 The hypothalamus also stimulates the anterior pituitary to release a hormone that drives the outer layer of the adrenal gland the adrenal cortex to release adrenal steroid hormones such as cortisol 1 Next is the adaptation stage which brings the body back to normal Prolonged or frequently repeated stress leads to the exhaustion stage the response to stress that is mused by prolonged stress and is increased susceptibility to diease Stress immuninization the concept that mild stress early in life makes an individual better able to handle stress later in life Epigenetic regulation changes in gene expression that are due to environmental effects rather than to changes in the nucleotide sequence of the gene Psychosomatic medicine a field of study that emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disease Health psychology focuses on psychological influences on heathrelated processes such as why people become ill or how they remain healthy Psychoneuroimmunology the study of the immune system and its interaction with the nervous system and behavior Recovery of Function Agnosia the inability to recognize objects despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color Agnosia may occur after localized brain damge Recovery of function the recovery of behavioral capacity following brain damage from stroke injury Embryonic stem cells a cell derived from an embryo that has the capacity to form any type of tissue Several factors determine how thoroughly a person will recover from brain injury passage of time immediate medical treatment reducing cell death and in ammation Lesion momentum the phenomenon in which the brain is impaired more by a lesion that develops quickly than a lesion that develops slowly Constraint induced movement therapy a therapy for recovery movement after stroke or injury in which the person39s unaffected limb is constrained while he is required to perform tasks with the affected limbs Chapter 12 Delusions false belief that is strongly held in spite of contrary evidence Schizophrenia a severe psychopathology disorder characterized by negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and impoverished thought and by positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions Positive symptoms an abnormal state or behaviors that have been gained hallucination delusions and excited motor behavior Negative symptoms an abnormality that re ects insufficient functioning or functions that have been lost slow and impoverished thought emotional and social withdrawal blunted affect Twins monozygotic identical twins share an identical set of genes which dizygotic fraternal twins have only half of their genes in common like an pair of siblings Concordance a characteristic that is seen in both individuals of a pair of twins Modern view is that schizophrenia is caused by the interaction of genetic factors and stress Each life stage has its own specific features that increase vulnerability to schizophrenia infection before birth complications at delivery urban living in childhood and adulthood Most schizophrenic patients have enlarged cerebral ventricles especially lateral benefit less from antipsychotic drugs DISC1 If started earlier in life have a thicker corpus collosum Seemed to be impaired on neuropsychological tests that are sensitive to frontal cortical lesions Hypofrontality hypothesis the idea that schizophrenia may re ect underactivation of the frontal lobes Lobotomy the surgical separation of a portion of the frontal lobes from the rest of the brain once used as a treatment for schizophrenia and many other ailments Chlorpromazine an antipsychotic drug that replace lobotomy as a treatment for schizophrenia could reduce positive symptoms Antipsychotic or neuroleptic any of the class of drugs that alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia typically be blocking dopamine receptors Dopamine hypothesis the idea that schizophrenia results from either excessive levels of synaptic dopamine or excessive postsynaptic sensitivity to dopamine Amphetamine psychosis a delusional and psychotic state closely resembling acute schizophrenia that is brought on by repeated use of high doses of amphetamine Typical neuroleptics an antischizophrenic drug that shows antagonist activity to dopamine D2 receptors Atypical neuroleptics these drugs generally don39t have the selective high affinity for dopamine receptors that is the hallmark of the typical neuroleptics The Glutatmate Hypothesis Phencyclindine an anesthetic agent that is also a psychedelic drug PCP makes many people feel dissociated from themselves and their environment Psychotomimetic a drug that induces a state resembling schizophrenia PCP acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist its blocks these receptor s central calcium channel thereby preventing the endogenous ligand glutamate from having its usual affects Ketamine a dissociative anesthetic drug similar to PCP that acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist Glutamate hypothesis the idea that schizophrenia may be caused in part by understimulation of glutamate receptors Mood Disorders Depression a psychotic condition characterized by such symptoms as an unhappy mood loss of interests energy and appetite and difficulty concentrating Unipolar depression depression that alternates with normal emotional states PET scans of depressed patients show increases in blood ow suggesting greater activity in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala compared to control subjects Also they have a thinner cortex across large swaths of the right hemisphere than do control subjects May have difficulties regulating stress hormone release Electroconvulsive shock therapy ECT a lost resort treatment for unmanageable depression in which a strong electrical current is passed through the brain causing a seizure Could rapidly reverse severe depression not schizophrenia Today drug that affect monoamine transmitters norepinephrine dopamine and serotonin Monoamine oxidase MAO an enzyme that breaks down and thereby inactivates monoamine transmitters Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs a drug that blocks the reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses commonly used to treat depression 242243 Deep brain stimulation DBS mild electrical stimulation through an electrode that is surgically implanted deep in the brain Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT aimed at correcting negative thinking and consciously changing behaviors as a way of changing feelings Postpartum depression a bout of depression that af icts a women either immediately before or after giving birth Learned helpfulness a learning paradigm in which individuals are subjected to inescapable unpleasant conditions Bipolar disorder a psychiatric disorder characterized by periods of depression that alternate with excessive expansive moods Lithium an element that administrated to patients often relieves the symptoms of bipolar disorder Anxiety disorders any of a class of psychological disorders that include recurrent panic states generalized persistent anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder Benzodiazepines any of a class of antianxiety drugs are agonists of GABA receptors in the central nervous system Anxiolytic a substance that is used to combat anxiety People with PTSD show memory changes such as amnesia for some war experiences ashbacks deficits in short term memory These suggest involvement in the hippocampus Fear conditioning a form of learning in which fear come to be associated with a previously neutral stimulus OCD an anxiety disorder in which the affected individual experiences recurrent unwanted thoughts and engages in repetitive behaviors without reason or the ability to stop OCD drugs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and serotonergic synapses thereby increasing the synaptic availability of serotonin Co morbid refereeing the tendency of certain diseases or disorders to occur together in individuals Biopsychology Chapter 4 exogenous arising from outside the body endogenous produced inside the body neuron processes information through electrical responses from many synapses an then releases a chemical to pass that information to the next cell presynaptic release of endogenous a chemical called a neurotransmitter the neurotransmitter then communicates with the postsynaptic cell alter behavior by millions or even billions of synapses electrical signals called action potentials movie down axons until they reach the axon terminal which forms the presynaptic located on the transmitting side of the synapse when action potential reach the terminal they cause vesicles to fuse with the membrane spilling their contents into the synaptic cleft which is known as exocytosis a cellular process that results in the release a substance into the extracellular space Molecules of neurotransmitter a signaling chemical released by a presynaptic neuron that diffuses across the synaptic cleft to alter the functioning of the postsynaptic neuron leave the vesicles and cross the synaptic cleft to bind to neurotransmitter receptors a specialized protein that is embedded in the cell membrane allowing it to selectively sense and react to molecules of the corresponding neurotransmitter that span the membrane of the postsynaptic cell which is receiving the chemical signal Binding of neurotransmitter molecules to receptors can affect the postsynaptic cell in several ways Broken down by enzymes into simpler chemicals Brought back into the presynaptic terminal in process called reuptake Reuptake the reabsorption of molecules of neurotransmitter by the neurons that released them therefore ending the signaling activity of the transmitter molecules relies of the special proteins called transporters a specialized membrane component that returns transmitter molecules to the presynaptic neuron for reuse ionotropic receptor li gand gated ion channel ac receptor protein containing an ion channel that opens when the receptor is bound by an agonist quickly changes shape to open or close their ion channel opening of the channel allows more or less of the channels favorite ion to flow into or out of the postsynaptic neuron thus changing the local membrane potential metabolic receptors a receptor protein that does not contain ion channels by may when activated use a G protein system to open nearby ion channels or produce other cellular effects Is a transmitter if It can be synthesized by presynaptic neurons and stored in axon terminals It is released when action potentials reach the terminals It is recognized by specific receptors located on the postsynaptic membrane It causes changes in the postsynaptic cell Blocking its release interferes with the ability of the presynaptic cell to affect the postsynaptic cell amine neurotransmitter a neurotransmitter based on modifications of a single amino acid nucleus acetylcholine dopamine serotonin amino acid neurotransmitter a neurotransmitter is itself an amino acid GAPA glycine and glutamate peptide neurotransmitter a neurotransmitter consisting of a short chain of amino acids gas neurotransmitters a neurotransmitter that is a soluble gas nitric oxide and carbon monoxide Ach plays a plays a major role in transmission in the forebrain cholinergic the cells that use acetylcholine as their synaptic transmitter and are found in the basal forebrain basal forebrain a region ventral to the basal ganglia that is the major source of acytecholine in the brain dopamine a monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain especially the substantia nigra and in the basal forebrain They are important for many aspects of behavior dopaminergic the cells that use dopamine as their synaptic transmitter substantia nigra a brainstem structure that innervates the basal ganglia and is the source of all dopaminergic projections when people lose significant number of mesostriatal dopaminergic neurons they develop parkinson s disease ventral tegmental area VTA a portion of the midbrain that projects dopamine nergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens serotonergic few of them and they are the cells that use serotonin as their synaptic transmitter raphe nuclei a string of nuclei in the midline of the midbrain and brainstem that contains most of the serotonergic neurons of the brain Serotonin 5 HT a synaptic transmitter that is produced in the raphe nuclei and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres it participates in the control of mood vision sexual behavior anxiety sleep norepinephrine NE a neurotransmitter that is produced and released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons to accelerate organ activity It is also produced in the brainstem and found in projections throughout the brain noradrenergic the cells using norepinephrine as a transmitter they have their cells in the brainstem and the midbrain the locus coeruleus a small nucleus in the brainstem whose neurons produce norepinephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain and the lateral tegmental area a brainstem region that provides some of the norepinephrine containing projections of the brain they participate in the control of behaviors such as alertness to mood to sexual behavior the most common transmitters in the brain are amino acids glutamate and the inhibitory transmitter gamma aminobutyric acid Opioid peptides type of endogenous peptide that mimics the effects of morphine in binding to opioid receptors and producing marking analgesia and reward neurons sometimes use gas molecules to communicate information nitric oxide gas neurotransmitters are produced outside the axon terminals and are not held in the vesicles the substance just diffuses out of the neuron as it is produced they diffuse into the target cell to trigger second messenger inside gases can function as retrograde transmitters a neurotransmitter that diffuses from the postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron ligand a substance that binds to receptor molecules such as a neurotransmitter or drug that binds postsynaptic receptors when a neurotransmitter binds a receptor it activates a change in the receptor such as opening a channel agonist a molecule usually a drug that binds a receptor molecule and initiates a response like that of another molecule usually a neurotransmitter antagonist a molecule usually a drug that interferes with or prevents the action of a neurotransmitter caffeine nicotine opium originally evolved from plants other drugs are human made page 86 binding affinity the propensity of molecules of a drug or other ligand to bind to receptors at low doses when relatively few drug molecules are in circulation drugs will bind to their highest affinity receptors efficacy or intrinsic activity the extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor agonists have high efficiency and antagonists have low efficiency it s the combination of the efficiency and affinity determines the overall action of the drug dose response curve DRC a formal graph of drug s effects y axis versus the does given x axis bioavailable referring to a substance usually a drug that is present in the body in a form that is able to interact with physiological mechanisms biotransformation the process in which enzymes covert a drug into a metabolite that is itself active possibly in ways that are substantially different from the actions of the original substance blood brain barrier the mechanisms that make the movement of substances from blood vessels into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs thus affording the brain greater protection from exposure to some substances found in the blood page 88 drug tolerance a condition in which with repeated exposure to a drug an individual becomes less responsive to a constant dose metabolic treatment the form of drug tolerance that arises when repeated exposure to the drug causes the metabolic machinery of the body to become more efficient at clearing the drug functional tolerance the form of drug tolerance hat arises when repeated exposure to the drug causes receptors to be up regulated and down regulated down regulate a compensatory decrease in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron up regulate a compensatory increase in receptor availability at the synapse of a neuron cross tolerance a condition in which the development of tolerance for one drug causes an individual to develop tolerance for another drug page 90 auto receptors a receptor for a synaptic transmitter that is located in the presynaptic membrane and tells the axon terminal how much transmitter has been released neuroleptics or antipsychotics any of a class of antipsychotic drugs that alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia typically by blocking dopamine receptors atypical neuroleptic an antipsychotic drug that has actions other than or in addition to dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics antidepressants a drug that relieves the symptoms of depression monoamine oxidase an enzyme that breaks down monoamine transmitters thereby inactivating them tricyclic antidepressant an antidepressant that acts by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor a drug that blocks the reuptake of transmitter at serotonergic synapses depressant a drug that reduces the excitability of neurons barbiturate an early anxiolytic drug and sleep aid that has depressant activity in the nervous system benzodiazepine any of a class of antianxiety drug that are agonists of GABA receptors in the central nervous system opium an extract of the seedpod juice opium poppy morphine an opiate compound derived from the poppy ower analgesic having painkilling properties heroin an artificially modified very potent form of morphine opioid receptor a receptor that responds to endogenous opioids and or exogenous opiates periaqueductal grey the neuronal body rich region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles it is involved in pain perception endogenous opioid any of a class opium like peptide transmitters that have been called the body s own narcotics The three kinds are enkephalins endorphins and dynorphins One of the three kinds of endogenous opioids 1 Encephalin 2 Endorphin 3 Dynorphin tobacco highly addictive North American plant whose leaves usually dried and smoked are a major source of nicotine nicotine a compound found in plants including tobacco that acts as an agonist on a large class of cholinergic receptors stimulant a drug that enhances the excitability of neurons alcohol a neuroactive compound that first stimulates and then depresses neural activity with varied behavioral consequences fetal alcohol syndrome a disorder including intellectual disability and characteristic facial abnormalities that affects children exposed to too much alcohol during fetal development marijuana a dried preparation of the Cannabis sativa plant usually smoked to obtain THC delta 9 tetrahydocannabinol the major active ingredient marijuana endocannabinoid an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors thus an analog of marijuana that is produced by the brain anandamide an endogenous substance that binds the cannabinoid receptor molecule caffeine a stimulant compound found in coffee cocoa and other plants cocaine a drug of abuse derived from the cocoa that acts by enhancing catecholamine neurotransmission amphetamine a molecule that resembles the structure of the catecholamine transmitters and enhances their activity hallucinogen a drug that alters sensory perception and produces peculiar experiences LSD hallucinogen drug MDMA drug of abuse dissociative a type of drug that produces a dreamlike state in which consciousness in pretty separated from sensory inputs withdrawal symptom an uncomfortable symptom that arises when a person stops taking a drug that he or she has used frequently especially at high doses dysphoria unpleasant feelings the opposite of euphoria nucleus accumbens a region of the forebrain that receives dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area insula a region of cortex lying below the surface within the lateral sulcus of the frontal temporal and parietal lobes Chapter 7 retina the receptive surface inside the eye that contains photoreceptors and other neurons the retina turns the light into neural signals in a process called transduction the conversion of one form of energy to another as converting light into neural activity good vision requires an accurate optical image focused on the retina cornea the transparent outer layer of the eye whose curvature is fixed The cornea bends light rays and is primarily responsible for forming the image on the retina light travels in a straight line until it encounters a change in the density of the medium which causes light rays to bend refraction the bending of light rays by a change in the density of a medium such as the cornea and the lens of the eyes the curvature of the cornea which does not change shape refracts light rays and is primarily responsible for focusing on the retina light passing through the cornea is further refracted by the lens a structure in the eye that helps focus an image on the retina the change in the shape of the lens is controlled by the ciliary muscles one of the muscles the muscles that control the shape of the lends inside the eye focusing on an image on the retina inside the eye changes in the contraction of the ciliary muscles alter the focal distance of the eye causing nearer or farther images to come into focus on the retina which is called accommodation as mammals age the lens becomes less elastic and therefore less able to bring nearby objects into focus young people usually have myopia nearsightedness the inability to focus the retina image of objects that are far away myopia develops if the eyeball is too long causing the cornea and lens to focus images in front of the retina rather than on it image on the retina is upside down and reversed extraocular muscle one of the muscles attached to the eyeball that control is position and movement 3 sets of muscles the first stages of visual information processing occur in the retina receptive surface inside the back of they eye sensory neurons that detect light are called photoreceptors a neural cell in the retina that responds to light there are two types of photoreceptors in the retina rods a photoreceptor cell in the retina that is most active at low levels of light and cones any of several classes of photoreceptor cells in the retina that are responsible for color vision cones come in several types of varieties respond differently to light of varying wavelengths providing us with color vision rods respond to any visible light regardless of wavelength rod and cone photoreceptors release neurotransmitters molecules that control the activity of bipolar cells an interneuron in the retina that receives information from rods and cones and passes the information to retinal ganglion cells that synapse with them the bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells any of a class of cells in the retina whose axons form the optic nerve the axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve cranial nerve the collection of ganglion cell axons that extend from the retina to the brain two typical kinds of cells 1 Horizontal cell a specialized retinal cell that contracts both receptor cells and bipolar cells 2 Amacrine cell a specialized retinal cell that contracts both bipolar cells and ganglion cells and is especially significant in inhibitory interactions within the retina they produce only graded potentials not action potentials ganglions conducts action potentials a rod based system called the scotopic system a system in the retina that operates at low levels of light and involves the rods we use rod vision to detect objects in dim light is insensitive to color convergence the phenomenon of neural connections in which many cells send signals to a signal cell photopic system a system in the retina that operates at high levels of light shows sensitivity to color and involves the cones it has less convergence than the scotopic system with some ganglion cells reporting information from only a single cone the staking of discs increases the possibility that they will capture light particles rhodopsin the photo pigment in rods that responds to light photoreceptors in the dark release neurotransmitters onto bipolar cells when the light hits the photo pigment in the photoreceptor its triggers a cascade of chemical reactions that hyperpolarize the cell causing the cell to release less neurotransmitter onto bipolar cell one way the visual system deals with a large range of intensities is by adjusting the size of the pupil the photo pigment in rods that responds to light which is an opening in the colorful disc called the iris the circular structure of the eye that provides an opening to form the pupil dilation of the pupils is controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic system and constriction by the parasympathetic division in bright light the pupil contracts quickly to admit only about 1 16 as much light as when illumination is dim range fractionation the mean by which sensory systems cover a wide range of intensity values as each sensory receptor cell specialize in just one part of the overall range of intensities photoreceptor ation the tendency of rods and cones to adjust their light sensitivity to match ambient levels of illumination visual activity sharpness of vision is a measure of how much detail we can see the central region of the retina called the fovea the central portion of the retina which is packed with the highest density of photoreceptors and is the center of our gaze cones are much smaller in the fovea than other parts of the retina the smaller size allows cones to be packed closer together in the fovea and is one reason visual acuity is so high in this region in humans both cones and rods are larger toward the periphery rods are absent in the fovea but more numerous than cones in the periphery of the retina periphery cones are so large to detect color so they are likely to get some color information acuity is great in the retina fovea than other places in the retina because in this region light reaches the cones directly without having to pass through other layers of cells and blood vessels the optical disc the region of the retina that is devoid to receptor cells because ganglion cell axons and blood vessels exit the eyeball there to the nasal side of the fovea is where blood vessels and ganglion cell axons leave the eye there are no photoreceptors at the optic disc there is a blind spot the portion of the visual field from which light falls on the optic disc because there are no receptors in this region light striking the blind spot cannot be seen here that we normally don t notice ganglion cells in each eye produce action potentials that are conducted along their axons to send visual information to the brain these axons make up the optic nerve which brings information into the brain on each side eventually reaching the occipital cortex the cortex of the occipital lobe of the brain optic nerves cross the midline at the optic chiasm the point at which the two optic nerves meet axons from half of the retina cross over nose and others stay on same side temple after they cross the optical chiasm the axons of the retinal ganglion cells are known collectively as the optic tract the axons of the retinal ganglion cells after they have passed the optic chiasm most of these axons terminate in he lateral geniculate nucleus most axons of the optic tract terminate on the cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus the part of the thalamus that receives information from the optic tract and sends it to visual areas in the occipital cortex optic radiations axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus that terminate in the primary visual areas of the occipital cortex primary visual cortex the region of the occipital cortex where most visual information first arrives also sometimes called striate cortex because cross sections of brain tissue from this region feature a prominent stripe binocular two eyes extrastriate cortex outside the striate cortex these regions process different aspects of visual perception such as form color location visual field the whole area you can see without moving your head topographic projection a mapping that preserves the point to point correspond between neighboring parts scotoma a region of blindness within the visual fields caused by injury to the visual pathway or brain blind sight the paradoxical phenomenon whereby within a scotoma person cannot consciously perceive visual cues but may still be able to make some visual discrimination receptive field the stimulus region and features that affect the activity of a cell of its receptive system on center bipolar cells a retinal bipolar cell that is excited by light in the center of its receptive field off center bipolar cells a retinal bipolar cell that is inhibited by light in the center of its receptive field on center ganglion cells a retinal ganglion cell that is activated when light is presented to the center rather than the periphery of the cell s receptive field off center ganglion cells a retinal ganglion cell that is activated when light is presented to the periphery rather than the center of the cell s receptive field lateral inhibition why light landing on the surround of a firing ganglion call is opposite to the effect of light falling in the center in which sensory receptor cells inhibit the reporting of information from neighboring receptor cells page 182 area V1 represents only a small fraction of the total amount of cortex that is devoted to vision from are V1 axons extend to cortical areas involved in the perception of formvb bv bvv b V2 V4 and the inferior temporal area page 187 eyeball anatomy page 170 retinal anatomy page 172 visual pathway page 178 page 187 color perception 1 first stage cones the retinal receptor cells that are specialized to respond to certain wavelengths of light receive visual information 2 second stage this information is processed by neuron in the local circuits of the retina leading to the retinal ganglion cells that are excited by light of some wavelengths and inhibited by light of other wavelengths The ganglion cells send the wavelength information via their axons to the LGN The information then goes to the V1 which relays it to other visual cortical areas where the third and fourth stage take place KNOW page 200 Bio Psychology Page 223246 Reproductive Behavior rl S tquot Four distinct stages of behavior Sexual attraction Appetitive behavior Copulation Post copulatory behavior sexual attraction the first step in the mating behavior of many animals in which animals emit stimuli that attract members of the opposite sex closely synchronized with readiness to reproduce we gauge an individual s attractiveness by observing the response of potential mates how rapidly they approach how hard they work to gain access etc estrogen levels are associated with the release of eggs so these mechanisms tend to synchronize female sexual attractiveness with peak fertility Appetitive behaviors the second stage of mating behavior it helps establish or maintain sexual interaction Proceptive the state in which an animal advertises its readiness to mate through species typical behaviors such as earing wiggling in the female rate and males usually stay near the female and sniff around them If both male and female display appetitive behaviors they may progress to the third stage copulation or coitus SEX Intromission insertion of the erect penis into the vagina during copulation When stimulation reaches threshold level the male ejaculates sperm bearing semen into the female Refractory period a period following copulation during which an individual cannot recommence copulation Coolidge effect the propensity of an animal that has appeared sexually satiated with a present partner to resume sexual activity when provided with a new partner Female decides when copulation with happen when she is ready she is said to be sexually receptive referring to the state in which an individual in mammals typically the female is willing to copulate Estrus the period during which female animals are sexually receptive Most species are seasonal breeders The fourth stage is postcopulatory behaviors species specific postcopulatory behaviors including rolling in the cat and grooming in the rat Copulatory lock reproductive behavior in which the male s penis swells after ejaculation so that the male and female are forced to remain joined for 510 minutes it occurs in dogs and some rodents but not in humans All mammals birds and reptiles employ internal fertilization the fusion of their gametes a sex cell that contains only unpaired chromosomes and therefore has only half the usual number of chromosomes Ovum the egg the female gamte Zygote the fertilized egg Ovulation the production and release of an egg Rats ovulate every four days and around the time of ovulation the female seeks out a male and displays proceptive behaviors including vocalizations at frequencies too high for humans to detect but audible to other rats Lodosis a female receptive posture in four legged animals in which the hind quarters is raised and the tail is turned to one side facilitating intromission by the male The cycle may happen five or six times in one mating session Some rodent species like prairie voles live together before and long after copulation forming a pair bond Activational effect a temporary change in behavior resulting from the administration of a hormone to an adult animal The Neural Circuitry of the Brain Regulates Reproductive Behavior Hypothalamic nuclei contains many estrogen and progesterone sensitive neurons Ventromedial hypothalamus VMH a hypothalamic region involved in eating and sexual behaviors Estrogen treatment is to cause dendrites of VMH neurons to grow and become more complex amp to stimulate the production of progesterone receptors so that the animal will become more responsive to that hormone Activated progesterone receptors in turn help mediate the lordosis re ex The VMH sends axons to the periaqueductal gray connects the third and fourth ventricles and is involved in pain perception and reproductive behaviors region on the midbrain where again lesions greatly diminish lordosis Page 228 Neural circuits of Reproduction in Rodents Androgen activate a neural system for male reproductive behavior Steroids also activate male copulatory behavior in rodents and other animals the sites of steroid action provide important clues about the neural circuitry involved Medial preoptic area mPOA a region of the anterior hypothalamus implicated in the control of many behaviors including thermoregulation sexual behavior and gonadotropin secretion Lesions of the mPOA abolish male copulatory behaviors They cannot mount if lesioned but still are motivated for the female mPOA coordinates copulatory behavior by sending axons to the ventral midbrain and via the multi synaptic pathway to the spinal cord which mediates genital re exes such as ejaculation brainstem projections of serotonergic fibers to the spinal cord normally hold the penile erection in check antidepressants can give side effects like unable to achieve erection or orgasm by enhancing serotonergic inhibition of the spinal cord Vomeronasal organ or VNO a collection of specialized receptor cells near to but separate from the olfactory epithelium that detect pheromones and send electrical signals to the accessory olfactory bulb in the brain Medial amygalda a portion of the amygalda that receives olfactory and pheromonal information from the VNO It depends on adult circulating levels of sex steroids to maintain masculine form and function Lesions here will abolish the penile erections that occur around receptive females The medial amygalda in turn sends axons to the mPOA which integrates hormonal and sensory information such as pheromones to coordinate the motor patterns of copulation Parental Behaviors Milk letdown re ex of oxytocin Female pregnant rat prepares for pups by licking on her nipples This self grooming expands the amount of sensory cortex that responds to skin surrounding the nipples setting the stage for the letdown re ex Parental behaviors behavior of adult animals that has the goal of enhancing the well being of their own offspring often at some cost to the parents Nest building Crouching over pups Retrieving pups Nursing Virgin female finds the smell of pups abrasive Information about the odor from pups projects via the olfactory bulb to the medial amygalda and on to the VMH Lesions anywhere along that path will cause a virgin rat to show maternal behavior right away because she no longer detects the smell If virgin is exposed to pups a few hours a day for several days in a row she will start to build a nest crouching over pups and retrieving them Complicated pattern of hormones during pregnancy shapes dam s brain to display maternal behaviors before she is exposed to the pups Parabiotic referring to a surgical preparation that joins two animals to share a signal blood supply Two female rats one pregnant non pregnant will experience hormones too The Hallmark of Human Sexual Behavior is Diversity Alfred Kinsey asked questions to get information about sexual behavior in humans Most mammalian species including most nonhuman primates the male mounts the female from the rear but humans face to face is more common Orgasm the climax of sexual behavior marked by extremely pleasurable sensations During the excitement phase the phallus the clitoris or penis becomes engorged with blood making it erect In women parasympathetic activity during the excitement phase causes changes in vaginal blood vessels producing lubricating uids that facilitate intromission Most men cannot achieve another orgasm and erection until some time as passed after their first Women can have multiple orgasms Basic sex drives seems to be greater in men reflected in more frequent masturbation sexual fantasies and pursuit in sexual contact Women have emotional components and cognitive factors related to sex more than men Sexual masturbation in adolescence may help avoid sexual problems in adulthood Hormones play only a permissive role in human sexual behavior Testosterone must be in circulation to activate male typical mating behavior in rodents Double blind tests a test of a drug or treatment in which neither the subjects nor the attending researchers know which subjects are receiving the drug treatment and which are receiving the placebo control Sexual Differentiation and Orientation Sexual differentiation the process by which individuals develop either manlike or female like bodies and behavior In mammals this process begins before birth and continues into adulthood In mammals every egg carries an X chromosome from the mother the penetration of the egg by a sperm carrying either a second X or Y chromosome is the key event in sex determination the process by which it is established that a fetus will develop as a male or female XX female XY male Indifferent gonads the undifferentiated gonads of the early mammalian fetus which will eventually develop into either testes or ovaries During the first month of genastation in humans the indifferent gonads will begin changing into either ovaries or testes The Y chromosomes contains the SRY gene a gene on the Y chromosome that directs the developing gonads to become testes sex determining region of chromosome Y If they have a Y chromosome the cells of indifferent gonad will begin making the Sry protein and develop into testes If not Y then no Sry protein is produced and the gonads become an ovary If cells are exposed to testicular hormones the masculine characteristics form but if not then feminine characteristics form The early fetus has genital tubercle a bump between the legs that can develop into a penis or clitoris Wolffian ducts a duct system in the embryo that will develop into male reproductive structures if tests are present in the embryo Mullerian ducts a duct system in the embryo that will develop into female reproductive structures if testes are not present in the embryo In females the mullerian ducts develop into the oviducts uterus and inner vagina In males hormones secreted by the testes orchestrate the converse outcome the wolffian ducts develop into epididymis vas deferens and seminal vesicles while the mullerian ducts shrink System is masculinized by testosterone which promotes development of the wolffian system and anti mullerian hormone AMH protein hormone secreted by the fetal testes that inhibits mullerian duct development Absence of AMH and mullerian female internal reproductive tract Dihydrotesterone DHT is a potent androgen that is principally responsible for the masculinization of the external genitalia in mammalian sexual differentiation 5 alpha reductase an enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone Turner39s syndrome a condition seen in individuals carrying a single X chromosome but no other sex chromosome in which an apparent female has underdeveloped but recognizable ovaries Congential adrenal hyperplasia CAH any of several genetic mutations that can cause a female fetus to be exposed to adrenal androgens resulting in partial masculinization at birth Intersex referring to an individual with atypical genital development and sexual differentiation and generally resembles a form intermediate between typical male and typical female genitals Androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS a syndrome caused by a mutation of the androgen receptor gene that reduces tissues insensitive to androgenic hormones like testosterone Affected XY individuals are phenotypic females but they have internal testes and regressed internal genital structures In the absence of working androgen receptors the wolffian ducts fail to develop and the external tissues labia and a clitoris look like females and have breasts but do not menstruate because neither ovaries nor uterus are present Guevedocs individuals who are raised as girls but at puberty change appearance and begin behaving as boys Androgen insensitive women have male XY sex chromosomes and internal testes and like most males they do not have fallopian tubes or a uterus but they do have a vagina and breasts Sexual dimorphism the condition in which males and females of the same species show pronounced sex differences in appearance Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area SDN POA a region of the preoptic area that is five to six times larger in volume in male rats that in females Spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus SNB a group of motorneurons in the spinal cord of rats that innervate striated muscles controlling the penis BC muscles surround the base of the penis are innervated by motor neurons On the day before birth the BC muscles attached to the base of the clitoris are nearly as large as those males and that are innervated by motor neurons in the SNB region SNB cells die and BC muscles in females die just before and after birth Onuf s nucleus the human homolog of the spinal nucleus of the bulbcavernosus SNB in rats Fraternal birth order effect a phenomenon in human populations such that the more older biological brothers a boy has the more likely to develop homosexual orientation Review page 247 Page 356379 Types of Learning and Memory Learning the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information behavior patterns or abilities characterized by modifications of behavior as a result of practice study or experience Memory the ability to retain information based on the mental process of learning or encoding retention across some interval of time consolidation and retrieval or reactivation of the memory The specific information that is stored in the brain Amnesia severe impairment of memory Retrograde amnesia difficulty in retrieving memories formed before the onset of amnesia Patient HM a patient who because of damage to medial temporal lobe structures was unable to encode new declarative memories Upon his death we learned his name was Henry Molaison Anterograde amnesia difficulty in forming new memories beginning with the onset of a new disorder Hippocampus a medial temporal lobe structure that is important for learning and memory Declarative memory facts and information acquired through learning Non declarative memory procedural memory memory about perceptual or motor procedures is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection Delayed non matching to sample task a test of object recognition memory that requires monkeys to declare what they remember Patient NA a patient who is unable to encode new declarative memories because of damage to the dorsomedial thalamus and the mammillary bodies Dorsomedial thalamus a limbic system structure that is connected to the hippocampus Mammillary bodies one of the pair of limbic system structures that are connected to the hippocampus Korsakoff s syndrome a memory disorder related to a thiamine deficiency that is generally associated with chronic alcoholism It is commonly accompanied by confabulation Found in the limbic system People with this disease often fail to recognize or sense any familiarity with some items even when presented repeatedly yet frequently they deny that anything is wrong with them Confabulate to fill in a gap in memory with falsification Damage from frontal cortex found in Korsakoff s syndrome causes the denial and confabulation that differentiates them from patients who have amnesia Main cause of Korsakoff s is lack of the vitamin thiamine Needed to form new declarative memories but not stored there hippocampus mammillary bodies and the dorsomedial thalamus Patient KC a patient who sustained damage to the cortex that renders him ubable to form and retrieve new episodic memories He cant retrieve any personal memories from the past although his general knowledge remained good Episodic memory memory of a particular incident or a particular time and place Semantic memory generalized declarative memory such as knowing the menaing of a word without knowing where or when you learned that word In KC severe damage to the left frontoparietal and he right parieto occipital cerebral cortex as well as severe shrinkage of the hippocampus and nearby cortex Different Forms of Nondeclarative Memory Involve Different Brain Regions Skill learning the process of learning to perform a challenging task simply by repeating it over and over Sensorimotor skills mirror tracing perceptual skills learning to read mirror reversed text and cognitive skills tasks involving planning and problem solving all of which are impaired in people with damage to the basal ganglia a group of forebrain nuclei including the caudate nucleus globus pallidus and putamen found deep within the cerebral hemispheres They are crucial for skill learning Priming the phenomenon by which formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response It includes both classical and instrumental conditioning A change in the way you process a stimulus usually a word or a picture because you39ve seen it or something similar previously Associative learning a type of learning in which an association is formed between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response It includes both classical and instrumental conditioning Classical conditioning associative learning in which an originally neutral stimulus CS through pairing with another stimulus US that elicits a particular response acquires the power to elicit that response when presented alone A response elicited by the US is called an unconditioned response UR a response elicited by the CS alone is called a conditioned response CR Cerebellum a structure located at the back of the brain dorsal to the pons that is involved in the central regulation of movement and in classical conditioning Instrumental conditioning operant conditioning a form of associative learning in which the likelihood that an act will be performed depends on the consequences that follow it Cognitive map a mental representation of the relative spatial organization of objects and information Hippocampus is crucial for spatial learning Place cells a neuron in the hippocampus that selectively fired wihen the animal is in a particular location If the animal is moved to a new environment place cell activity indicates that the hippocampus remaps to the new locations Spatial task impairment only if hippocampal lesions Motor behavior impaired only with lesions of the basal ganglia Sensory impaired with cortical lesions Long term memory graph PAGE 365 Long term Memory Declarative things you know Non declarative Procedural Episodic Semantic Skill Learning Priming Conditioning Storage in Storage in Cortex Basal Ganglia Cortex Cerrebellum Cortex Motor cortex And cerebellum Iconic memory a very brief type of memory that stores the sensory impression of a scene Short term memories STMs a form of memory that usually lasts only seconds or as long as rehearsal continues Working memory Long term memory LTM an enduring form of memory that lasts days weeks months or years and has a very large capacity Memory system consists of at least three processes 1 Encoding the information entering sensory channels is passed into short term memory 2 Consolidation information in short term memory is transformed in short term memory is transformed to long term memory 3 Retrieval a stored memory is used by an organism Stages of memory PAGE 366 Hippocampus is not needed to encode sensory information in STM or to retrieve that information from STM the hippocampus is crucial for moving information from STM into LTM Intact hippocampus is required to consolidate declarative STMs into LTMs indicating that the information is somehow transformed into different format one that may make it available for a lifetime STMs more likely to be lost in trauma than LTM Primacy effect the superior performance seen in a memory task for items at the start of a list it is usually attributed to long term memory Recency effect the superior performance seen in memory task for items at the end of a list it is usually attributed to short term memory Memory trace a persistent change in the brain that re ects the storage of memory Reconsolidation the return of memory trace of stable long term storage after it has been temporarily made changeable during the process of recall Neural Mechanisms of Memory Neuroplasticity the ability of the nervous system to change in response to experience or the environment Housing conditions 1 Standard condition SC animals are housed in small groups in standard lab cages This is the typical environment for laboratory animals 2 Impoverished condition IC animals are housed individually in standard lab cages 3 Enriched condition EC animals are housed in large social groups in special cages containing various toys and other interesting features This condition provides enhanced opportunities for learning perceptual and motor skills social learning and so on Nonassociative learnaing a type of learning in which presentation of a learning in which presentation of a particular stimulus alters the strength or probability of a response according to the strength and temporal spacing of that stimulus It includes habituation and sensitization The simplest form of nonassociative learning is habituation a form of nonassociative learning in which an organism becomes less responsive following repeated presentations of stimulus KNOW ALL GRAPHS Synaptic Plasticity Can Be Measured in Simple Hippocampal Circuits When a presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron are repeatedly activated together the synaptic connection between them will become stronger and more stable Hebbian synapses a synapse that is successfully drives the postsynaptic cell Tetanus an intense volley of action potentials Long term potentiation a stable and enduring increase in the effectiveness of synapses following repeated strong stimulation The hippocampus consists of two interlocking C shaped structures hippocampus and the dentate gyrus Dentate gyrus a strip of gray matter in the hippocampal formation STUDY page 377378 Several research perspectives implicates LTP in memory 1 Correlational observations 2 Somatic Intervention experiments 3 Behavioral intervention experiments
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