Chapter 7 Reading Notes
Chapter 7 Reading Notes PSY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 7 Reading Notes Sensations how sensory organs and the nervous system respond to stimuli in the environment the elementary psychological experiences such as taste loudness or redness Perception The complex organizing of sensory information in the brain and how we interpret it That apple is redquot Quantitative Variation amount or intensity of energy Qualitative Variation precise kind of energy Transduction process of a receptor cell producing an electrical change in response to a physical stimulation 0 For all of our senses this happens in a way that the information about quantity and quality of stimuli are preserved in a pattern of action potentials sent to the brain Coding of Stimulus Quantity stronger stimuli bigger receptor potentials faster rates of action potentials in sensory neurons Coding of Stimulus Quality different receptors respond best to different forms of energy Value of Sensory Adaptation amount of stimulation of a sense increases the sensory system adapts by becoming less sensitive amount of stimulus goes down the system adapts and becomes more sensitive helps us to detect gas leaks and also to get used to smells like working on a farm Absolute Threshold the smallest amount of detectable stimulus of any type Difference Threshold ust Noticeable Differencejnd the smallest amount of difference in magnitude or intensity between stimuli needed so that the person can tell they are different Weber s Law jnd for stimulus magnitude is a constant proportion of magnitude of original stimulus Fechner s Law magnitude of sensory experience of stimulus directly proportional to physical magnitude of the stimulus 0 Every time physical intensity doubles sensed brightness in experiment increased by a constant amount Smell amp taste chemical senses because stimuli are chemical molecules 0 Bind molecule to receptor site change in structure of cell membrane electrical change triggers action potentials in neurons axon o Olfactory neurons differ from each other in sensitivity to smells 0 Every smell characterized by the pattern it produces across 350 olfactory neurons amp corresponding glomeruli in olfactory bulb I Glomeruli sends output to structures in limbic system and hypothalamus drives amp emotion this is why certain smells unconsciously affect our motivational amp emotional states 0 Smell affects avor due to opening connect back of the mouth with nasal cavity chewing amp swallowing force air from mouth to nose along with the molecules of what you are eating I No air ow through nose cant come through mouth why cant identify food drink when nostrils shut 0 Women more to smell than men sense of smell declines with age 0 Sense of smell affected by experience tests showed that through repetition people can learn to distinguish between smells of slightly different chemicals that at first smelled the same can also learn to detect odors at lower concentrations 0 Discriminating by smell people can tell others apart by smell proven through experiment where subjects wore clean tshirts for one day w out washing using deodorants or perfumes Another set of subjects could tell who wore what shirt just by smelling the shirt I 90 mothers could identify which undershirt was worn by their newborn after only exposed to them for 1060 minutes after they were born I Breastfed babies turned their heads more often to the cotton pad worn by their mother rather than one worn by other women I Mating dependent on smell prefer those whose major histocompatibility complex 50 highly variable genes that produce differences in odor is more different than their own Women more sensitive to smell because the biological costs of producing children greater than those for men selectivity for compatible genes more important 0 Evidence we don t produce sexattractant pheromones no specific human secretion found to be attractive to the opposite sex amp little to no need to advertise by scent when we are ready to mate Five Primary Tastes Sweet salty sour bitter umami 0 Connections to primary taste area of cortex arranged so different sets of neurons are selectively responsive to each taste 0 Learned many poisonous plants are bitter tasting through evolution developed system experiences toxic substances as unpleasant tasting I Women more sensitive to bitter taste especially during pregnancy because fetuses highly subject to damage by poisons during development want offspring to survive avoid eating toxins Strong pain overwhelms persons mind making it hard to think about anything else comes with its own facial expressions motivates person to reduce the pain and avoid doing what they did to cause the pain in the future Children with the absence of pain sensitivity not motivated to remove hand from burner or not chew on their tongues die young due to deterioration of tissue amp infection of wounds Three components of pain 0 Sensory Component depends on somatosensory cortex receives input for touch amp temperatures 0 Primary Emotional amp Motivational Component depends on portions of limbic system cingulate cortex amp insular cortex feel the pain but don t feel the need to escape it 0 Secondary Emotional amp Motivational Component suffering that comes from person s worrying about the future or about the meaning of the pain dependent on prefrontal lobe the part of the cerebral cortex closest to the front Phantomlimb Pain those that have had limb amputated feel as if their limb was still there and full of pain 0 Because brains mechanism for assigning pain to a certain area of the body can be activated without the sensory input from that part of the body Gatecontrol Theory experience of pain depends on how well input from pain sensory neurons can pass through a neuron gate and higher pain centers in the brain 0 Second order pain neurons send signals upward to higher brain areas that enable the experience of pain I Responsiveness of these to pain input is controlled by pain enhancing amp inhibiting neurons that extend axons down from higher portions of brain I Painenhancing open the gate I Paininhibiting close the gate Illness causes increased pain sensitivity this motivates ill people to rest and not move around 0 Believed to occur through action of immune system on pain enhancing neurons in the brain 0 Changes in free nerve endings of C fibers amp A delta fibers that are induced by chemicals released from damaging cells Morphine passes into brain taken up by special binding sites on neurons increases neural activity reduces pain 0 morphine binding sites on the spinal cord inject directly eliminate pain of part of the body that sends sensory neurons into that part of spinal cord 0 Body s chemicals that act like morphine Endorphins serve as neurotransmitters alter activity excitability of the neurons they bind to I Inhibit pain acting in PAG amp where paincarrying neurons enter brainstem amp spinal cord Induced Analgesia ability to not feel pain when we need to focus on survival Evidence stressinduced analgesia partly mediated by endorphins inject drug blocks action of endorphins analgesic effect didn t happen Endorphins secreted during periods of stress on body physical exercise don t feel pain while long distance running Placebo Effect treatment that has no active substance reduces the pain in person who believes it is a painkiller Amplitude sounds intensity height of the sound wave total pressure exerted by molecules of air moving back amp forth the sounds loudness Frequency The rate molecules of air move back amp forth variation in this is the sounds pitch Transduction in inner ear 0 Vibration of ossicles Oval window vibration in uid of outer duct of cochlea up amp down motion of basilar membrane against non exible tectorial membrane hairs on basilar membrane bend open channels to hair cell s membrane change in electrical charge across membrane each hair cell release neurotransmitter molecules at synapses on auditory neurons rate of action potentials in those neurons goes up Conduction Deafness Ossicles of middle ear rigid can t carry sounds inward people can hear vibrations that reach cochlea by ways other than middle ear 0 Solution Conventional Hearing Aid magnifies sound pressure so vibrations made by other bones in the face into the cochlea Sensorineural Deafness damage to hair cells of cochlea or damage to auditory neurons 0 Solution surgically implanted hearing aid cochlear implant sound turned into electrical impulses sent through wires attached to cochlea stimulate terminals of auditory neurons directly I Use place and timing to produce pitch perception I Break sound signal into different frequency ranges send electrical pulses from those frequency ranges through wire to different portions of basilar membrane Pitch processing in Brain Neurons tonotopically organized each neuron responsive to sounds of particular frequency Arranged so highfrequency tones activate neurons at one end of cortical area and lowfrequency tones activate neurons at the other end Pitches we hear dependent on which neurons most active Distance in ears contributes to ability to detect where sound coming from wave of sound coming from straight ahead reaches ears simultaneously but sound coming from right or left will reach one ear before the other Phonemic Restoration illusion where people hear part of words that are missing as if they are still there 0 More reliable for words that are expected in a sentence than words that are not expected 0 Turns partial word into whole word that goes with the meaning of the rest of the sentence 0 Evolutionary adaptation our auditory system allows us to hear meaningful sounds in uninterrupted ow
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