PSY 311 - Ch 14 - Emotion on Cognition & Memory
PSY 311 - Ch 14 - Emotion on Cognition & Memory PSY 311
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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PSY 311 Emotion Chapter 14 Emotion on Cognition & Memory Emo▯ons & Learning • Yerkes-Dodson La:w ◦ Learning is best done when s▯mula▯on/arousal isn't to strong or weak ◦ Learning, memory, performance, & reasoning are most enhanced under medium levels of arousal/mo▯va▯on/emo▯on Emo▯on & A▯en▯on • Study on a▯en▯on: ◦ Computer screen displays pairs of 1-digit numbers separated by a word ◦ I.E. "5 chart 8" ◦ Task is to press 1 key if both numbers are odd or even, or other key if there is a combina▯on of odd & even numbers & ignore the word in between ◦ Emo▯onal words such as "kill" are harder to ignore & par▯cipants take longer to press keys ◦ Emo▯onal words distract a▯en▯on & slow par▯cipants' responses more than neutral words do • Fear focuses one's a▯en▯on & decreases a▯en▯on to other s▯muli • Pictures of angry faces a▯ract & hold more a▯en▯on & evoke more cor▯cal arusal than pictures of happy or neutral faces (Schupp 2004) • Ac▯vely threatening pictures capture a▯en▯on even if presented in peripheral vision ◦ If a speciﬁc picture has been condi▯oned w/ a loud noise, the viewer immediately a▯ends to the picture even if it's far oﬀ to the side (Koster et al. 2004) • Ppl prone to strong anxie▯es especially likely to look away from distressing pictures (Calvo 2005) ◦ Threatening s▯muli capture a▯en▯on quickly, but ppl then try to avoid it • Broaden & Build Theory: ◦ Posi▯ve emo▯ons should expand our focus of a▯en▯on & see "the big picture" ◦ Par▯cipants in a posi▯ve mood are more crea▯ve & a▯end more to the global characteris▯cs of complex ﬁgures • Posi▯ve emo▯ons: ◦ Do not all involve approach mo▯va▯on to the same degree ◦ Strong approach mo▯va▯on/reward seeking narrows a▯en▯on & leads to focus on local details • Gable & Harmon-Jones 2008: : spuo r g 2 deng i s◦s A • Watched short ﬁlm clip w/ cats • Watched clip on yummy desserts ◦ All par▯cipants completed global-local a▯en▯on task a▯er • Par▯cipants who watched cats chose ﬁgures on the basis of global similarity • Par▯cipants who watched desserts based judgments more on details ◦ Emo▯on on a▯en▯on doesn't just depend on valence of emo▯on, but speciﬁc emo▯on & func▯ons • Par▯cipants tend to spend more ▯me looking at pleasant images than neutral ones PSY 311 Emotion Emo▯ons & Memory • We a▯end more to emo▯onally powerful s▯muli & are more likely to remember them • Concentra▯on Game (Adolphs et al. 2001): ◦ When par▯cipants look at unemo▯onal pictures, they remember combina▯on of central objects & background details • As if unemo▯onal scenes were viewed from a further distance ◦ For distressing pictures, central objects are remembered well, & background details are forgo▯en • As if emo▯onal scenes were viewed from a closer perspec▯ve • Emo▯onal arousal facilitates memory (Schmidt 2002): ◦ Par▯cipants looked at photographs of ppl & reported later what they remembered of them ◦ Par▯cipants mostly remembered the sole nude photo very well • Remembered almost nothing about the background details or next 2 or 3 pictures following the nude • Memory can be detached from a▯en▯on (Ackerman 2009): ◦ Par▯cipants played concentra▯on on the computer, matched pairs of photos while viewing only 1 photo at a ▯me ◦ Mixed set of distorted & regular pictures of faces ◦ Par▯cipants paid more a▯en▯on to disﬁgured faces ◦ Made more mistakes trying to match the disﬁgured ones ◦ Memory is enhanced by a▯en▯on but is aﬀected by other factors as well Emo▯on & Memory Forma▯on • Emo▯on enhances forma▯on & intensity of memories • Heightened emo▯ons strengthen the memories formed during events, but eﬀect breaks down at extreme levels of emo▯on • Bradley 1992: ◦ Par▯cipants viewed 60 photos of objects & events ◦ Ranged from everyday objects to extreme sports or gory pictures ◦ Par▯cipants then rated photos according to how calm or aroused they made them feel & how pleasant/unpleasant they were ◦ Par▯cipants then asked to brieﬂy describe as many pictures as possible ◦ More likely to remember strongly arousing pictures ◦ S▯ll more likely to remember intense/arousal-producing photos a year later • Ppl remember emo▯onally charged pictures be▯er than neutral ones even when presented rapidly & w/ divided a▯en▯on ◦ Results similar w/ word memory ◦ Remembered emo▯onally-charged words be▯er than neutral words & remembered them more vividly Hormones • Emo▯onal arousal increases release of epinephrine (adrenalin) & cor▯sol from adrenal gland ◦ S▯mulate vagus nerve -> excite amygdala • Direct injec▯ons of epinephrine or cor▯sol strengthen memory of events just experienced • Direct s▯mula▯on of vagus nerve or amygdala in lab animals strengthens memory storage • Mild stress that doesn't last too long helps in forma▯on of memories PSY 311 Emotion • Weakened physiological arousal weakens memory storage: ◦ 2 par▯cipant groups: 1. Took beta-blocker pills (disables sympathe▯c arousal) 2. Took placebo ◦ Par▯cipants then viewed slide show of wrecked cars, an emergency room, brain scan, & surgery ◦ 2 versions of the story: 1. Neutral version - boy walks by junkyard to look at cars, visits dad's work at the hospital, watches surgical team prac▯ce 2. Arousal version - boy is hit by a car, rushed to the hospital, brain scan shows brain bleeding, needs surgery ◦ 1 week later par▯cipants answered 80 mul▯ple choice ques▯ons about slides & stories • Par▯cipants hearing the neutral version had mediocre scores (answered 2/3rds correctly) • Par▯cipants in arousal version: ▪ Beta-blocker pill - performed the same as neutral par▯cipants ▪ Placebo - answered about 85% correctly • fMRI shows amygdala is more ac▯ve when viewing emo▯onally intense slides ◦ The greater degree of amygdala ac▯vity, the more accurately the images are remembered ◦ Amygdala-damaged ppl don't remember emo▯onal elements as well as others do Emo▯on & Memory Storage • Flashbulb memories - Vivid, highly detailed memories w/ photographic quality ◦ Feel detailed & life-like ◦ I.E. remembering the ▯me & place where you were when 9/11 happened ◦ No more accurate over long term than mundane memories ◦ Researchers asked US students to recall details of what they were doing when they ﬁrst heard about 9/11 ◦ Memories changed/became less accurate when repor▯ng months later • Par▯cipants viewing neutral & unpleasant photos remember both equally well, but feel more conﬁdent remembering unpleasant photos • MacKay 2005: ◦ Students observed colored words displayed all over a computer screen ◦ Task was to ignore words & say color of the ink ◦ Half the words were names of animals, other half profani▯es/insults ◦ Words appeared repeatedly in the same loca▯ons ◦ Students asked to iden▯fy loca▯ons of repeated words remembered explicit words more accurately than neutral ones • Eyewitness reports in court o▯en inaccurate & conﬁdence not highly correlated w/ memory accuracy Emo▯on & Memory Retrieval • Emo▯onal experiences: ◦ Students on a spring break trip were giving devices beeping at 7 random ▯mes a day ◦ Students reported emo▯ons at the moment of the beep PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Filled out a ques▯onnaire a▯er returning from trip about how much they enjoyed it ◦ On avg, reported pleasantness of the trip substan▯ally greater than avg reports during the trip ◦ Our memory of an experience is not an avg of emo▯ons over the whole ▯me but a reﬂec▯on of some highlights • Current emo▯ons modify what events we remember ◦ We remember happy events when we're in a good mood & vice versa ◦ Consistent w/ fright & anger as well Emo▯on & Informa▯on Processing • Situa▯on experiment: ◦ Par▯cipants warmed up by sadness-producing or anger-producing exercises ◦ Told to imagine themselves in an awkward rejec▯on situa▯on ◦ Angry par▯cipants more likely to blame ppl, sad par▯cipants more likely to blame circumstances/luck • Par▯cipants wri▯ng essays: ◦ 1 group told to write about how a▯acks made them angry ◦ 2nd group wrote about a▯acks making them sad ◦ 3rd group wrote about a▯acks making them afraid ◦ Par▯cipants then asked how much danger they foresee for themselves & the US in the next year ◦ Par▯cipants wri▯ng about fear es▯mated greater probabili▯es of danger for themselves & US • Emo▯ons inﬂuence how we interpret & reason about situa▯ons, what we a▯end to, & what we remember about them Aﬀect Valence & Systema▯c vs. Heuris▯c Processing • Systema▯c cogni▯on - thorough & deliberate analysis of available informa▯on • Heuris▯c cogni▯on - making decisions on the basis of "rule of thumb" or personal experiences • Central route to persuasion - providing facts & logic ◦ Ppl respond be▯er if they feel their decisions have major consequences & are worth the eﬀort • Peripheral route to persuasion - superﬁcial factors such as repea▯ng slogans or endorsements by celebri▯es ◦ Ppl star▯ng as ambivalent to persuasive messages are less likely to ques▯on the source of the message ◦ Happy mood makes ppl more suscep▯ble to peripheral route inﬂuences & less suscep▯ble to central route • More apt to jump to conclusions w/o examining evidence ◦ Sad ppl pay more a▯en▯on to quality of evidence • Bless 1990: ◦ Students randomly assigned to write about happy or sad events to induce happy or ad mood ◦ Then listened to either strong/factual arguments or weak/superﬁcial arguments about raising student fees at their university ◦ Students in a happy mood equally persuaded by strong/weak arguments PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Sad students persuaded just by the strong argument ◦ Sad mood tends to promote more careful analysis of arguments • Happy ppl more likely to apply stereotypes & explain behaviors in terms of personality traits rather than situa▯onal factors ◦ Also tend to rely on scripts & schemas during recall than actual facts/events that took place • Sadness discourages reliance on stereotypes when judging new targets Posi▯ve Aﬀect & Crea▯vity • Posi▯ve aﬀect has some cogni▯ve advantages ◦ Candle experiment - par▯cipants in a happy/amused mood more likely to solve problems crea▯vely & faster • Depressive realism - Ppl who are mildly depressed are more realis▯c than happy/op▯mis▯c ppl ◦ More likely to perceive themselves & situa▯ons accurately ◦ Make more careful/correct decisions • Perceiving control: ◦ Par▯cipants told to control frequency of a green light appearing ◦ In se▯ngs where par▯cipants had no control: • Non-depressed students es▯mated having 40% control • Dysthymic (depressed) students es▯mated 15% control, recognized lack • Predic▯on study: ◦ Dysthymic students slightly more accurate at predic▯ng future sad events, such as crying ◦ Happier students more accurate at predic▯ng future pleasant events, like how o▯en they would laugh • Self-appraisal ◦ 2 sets of students given the same, neutral "personality report" ◦ Dysthymic students rated proﬁles as unfavorable ◦ Other students rated them as favorable ◦ Dysthymia revealed bias to see one's self in a nega▯ve light Emo▯ons & Decision Making • Aﬀect Infusion Model ◦ People use their current emo▯onal state as informa▯on in reaching a decision about some target ◦ Even if the target did not evoke the emo▯on ◦ I.E. People are more likely to answer posi▯vely when asked how they're doing on a sunny day vs. a rainy day • Though the "cloudy day" eﬀect disappears if the weather is explicitly brought to par▯cipants' a▯en▯on • Poster study: ◦ Par▯cipants invited to look at posters & take one home ◦ 1 group instructed to write down reasons for choosing their major ◦ Other group instructed to write things they liked or disliked about each poster • Reasons manipula▯on ◦ All par▯cipants rated how much they liked each poster PSY 311 Emotion ◦ Par▯cipants in "reasons" manipula▯on less discrimina▯ng in ra▯ng a▯rac▯veness of posters • More likely to take a funny poster home rather than an art print : r e t a l s keew◦ 3 • Par▯cipants who carefully listed reasons for liking/disliking each poster were less sa▯sﬁed w/ their choice Emo▯ons & Moral Reasoning • Trolley Dilemma: ◦ A trolley car's brakes fail & is heading toward 5 ppl who can't escape ◦ Par▯cipants told they have a switch that controls which track the trolley can take ◦ 1 track kills 5 ppl, the other track kills 1 ◦ Other op▯on is to push a wrestler in front of the trolley to save the ppl but kill him • Found that par▯cipants felt using physical force to directly harm someone feels immoral, while incidental harm resul▯ng from our manipula▯on feels less problema▯c Limita▯ons of Relying on Emo▯ons • When making decisions based on liking & preference: ◦ Subconscious/aﬀec▯ve processing may lead to a be▯er decision than systema▯c analysis • Ppl across countries tend to prefer bets w/ a very small chance of a very high reward rather than a high probability of a very low reward ◦ Due to an▯cipa▯ng pleasure