Chapter 4 HNES 250
Popular in Nutrition science
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNES 250 at North Dakota State University taught by Elizabeth Hilliard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Nutrition science in Nursing and Health Sciences at North Dakota State University.
Reviews for Chapter 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 4 Carbohydrates are used as fuel for our body it is converted into glucose which is used for energy 0 In order to use a macronutrient for energy mitochondria is requwed If there is no mitochondria then glucose is needed to make energy RBC s don t have any mitochondria so they use glucose 0 Simple Carbs are mono or di saccharides o Monosaccharides They are usually hexoses 6 carbons Ex Glucose fructose and galactose only found in milk 0 Disaccharides 2 saccharides formed via condensation 0 Water is its byproduct Maltose glucose glucose 0 Produced when starch breaks down Sucrose glucose fructose 0 Found in nature fruits vegetables and grains 0 Refined sucrose is table sugar Lactose glucose galactose 0 Sugar found in milk 0 Complex Carbs are poly or oligo saccharides 0 Having many glucose units 0 Oligosaccharides 310 Dextrin short glucose chains 0 From the breakdown of starch o Polysaccharides 10 Could have 100 s of saccharides Glycogen 0 Limited amount in diet 0 Highly branched chains and has a lot of water because of the condensation reactions used to form the chains Starches o Amylose long straight chain 0 Amylopectin long branched chain Fiber 0 Found in all plants 0 Dietary fiber 0 Nondigestible parts of plants 0 Functional fiber 0 Difficult to digest have health benefits help with BMs 0 Total fiber sum of both dietary and functional fiber 0 Soluble fiber 0 Dissolve in water 0 Citrus fruits berries oat products and beans Insoluble fiber 0 Don t dissolve in water 0 Whole grains and vegetables Carbohydrates 0 Start breaking down in the mouth via amylase o Stomach is too acidic so no digestion o Digestion occurs again in small intestine pancreatic amylase Microvilli have enzymes to assist in breaking down CHO s Maltose glucose glucose Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose glucose galactose Fibers 0 Not all digestible 0 Provides feeling of satiety because it takes a long time to digest Hydrolysis o The breakdown of chemical bonds via water 0 The primary reaction for carbohydrates Absorption 0 ATP is required to absorb glucose and galactose It also needs a carrier protein and sodium 0 Fructose is absorbed via facilitated diffusion No energy needed Large amounts of fructose can cause diarrhea Liver o Fructose and galactose are converted into glucose 0 Glucose can be stored in the liver as glycogen go to cells or muscles stored as fat Blood Glucose relations of insulin and glucagon on slide 28 Glycemic Index slide 32 Carbohydrates are stored as glyycogen when glucose isn t needed in the body 0 There is a limited amount of storage room available for glycogen so excess will become fat 13 of glycogen is stored in the liver 23 of glycogen is stored in the muscles for muscle use only 0 Brain eye nerve cells and immature RBCs only use glucose for energy FAT has an unlimited amount of storage which is why the body uses fat for many things o If no glucose is present and all glycogen has been used up or body will break down fat for energy However fat does NOT get converted into glucose 0 Fats get turned into ketones which could lead to ketosis SO EAT CARBOHYDRATES 0 Complex carbs would be best such as fruits Normal blood glucose levels are 70100mgdl fasting When Blood Sugar drops 0 Hungry 0 Release glucagon c When we eat BS increases 0 Insulin is secreted o Glucose enters cells o If this BS balance doesn t occur then diabetes occurs 0 Diabetes High Blood Sugar 0 Insufficient insulin production 0 A failure of cells to respond to insulin 0 Type 1 lnsulin dependent pancreas problem Occurs before age 30 Less common Symptoms o Polydipsia Thirsty polyuria to get rid of the extra glucose weight loss weakness healing difficulty Usually very thin individuals 0 Type 2 Occurs with aging Strongly associated with obesity Gestational diabetes could be a risk factor Most common form of diabetes Failure of cells to respond to insulin Same symptoms as type 1 but also some more extreme symtpoms like blurry vision 0 Diabetes Treatment 0 lnsulin is provided for most individuals 0 Diet and exercise is key 0 Monitoring blood sugar levels 0 High BS 0 Blindness 0 Renal failure 0 Heart disease 0 Amputations Low BS 0 Fatigue o Unconsciousness o Coma 0 Death 0 Sugar has no nutritional value it just provides calories 0 Added sugar isn t necessary 0 Honey can give infants botulism